Nanoscale memory devices.

WCU-Division of IT Convergence Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Republic of Korea.
Nanotechnology (Impact Factor: 3.84). 10/2010; 21(41):412001. DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/21/41/412001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO(2).

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes is a non-destructive dielectric breakdown process that changes the diode from its initial high resistance state (HRS) to a low resistance state (LRS). After electroforming, resistance switching memories (RSMs) use voltages to switch from HRS to LRS and back. Many MIM combinations are proposed for use in RSMs. In many cases conduction in the LRS is nearly temperature independent at low temperatures; an Ohmic contact with a barrier to electron injection of ∼0 eV results from electroforming. Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with amorphous anodic Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 and 41 nm has been studied. Two anodizing electrolytes have been used; 0.1 M ammonium pentaborate (bor-H2O) and a solution of 0.1 M of ammonium pentaborate per liter of ethylene glycol (bor-gly). Polarization of Al2O3 and negative charge in Al2O3 are much larger when Al2O3 is formed in bor-H2O solution than when Al is anodized in bor-gly solution. Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes results in an Ohmic contact at the Al-Al2O3 interface, voltage-controlled negative resistance (VCNR) in the current-voltage (I–V) characteristics, electroluminescence (EL), and electron emission into vacuum (EM) from filamentary conducting channels. Two distinct modes of electroforming occur for Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes. α-forming occurs for 2.5 V ≲ VS ≲ 5 V, where VS is the applied voltage. It is characterized by an abrupt current jump with the simultaneous appearance of EL and EM. β-forming occurs for VS ≳ 7 V. I–V curves, EL, and EM develop gradually and are smaller than for α-forming. Electroforming occurs more readily for diodes with Al2O3 formed in bor-H2O that have greater defect densities. Fully developed I-V curves have similar VCNR, EL, and EM after α-forming or β-forming. A model is proposed in which excited states of F-centers, oxygen vacancies in amorphous anodic Al2O3, form defect conduction bands. Electroforming that results in an Ohmic contact requires injection of positive charge at the Al-Al2O3 interface. α-forming is the result of ionization of F-center recombination centers with energies that are close to the Al Fermi level. Hole injection by high-field ionization of valence band states of Al2O3 causes β-forming.
    Journal of Applied Physics 03/2012; 111(6). · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Iron sulfide nanoparticles Fe3S4 with the spinel-type crystal structure were synthesized by the polyol mediated process. The particle size depends on preparation conditions and varies from 9 to 20 nm. Mössbauer data have revealed that the dominating fraction of iron ions in the 9-nm sample is in the high-spin ferric state. This implies an occurrence of the cation vacancies in nonstoichiometric greigite. The stoichiometric phase of greigite Fe3S4 dominates in the 18-nm-size nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements have shown a ferrimagnetic behavior of all samples at temperatures between 78 and 300 K. The estimated value of magnetic moment of the stoichiometric greigite nanoparticles is about 3.5 μB per Fe3S4 unit. The Mössbauer spectra indicate a superparamagnetic behavior of small particles, and some fraction of superparamagnetic phase is observed in all samples synthesized which may be caused by the particle size distribution. The blocking temperatures of T B ≈ 230 and 250 K are estimated for the 9 and 14 nm particles, respectively. The Mössbauer parameters indicate a great degree of covalency in the Fe–S bonds and support the fast electron Fe3+ ⇆ Fe2+ exchange in the B-sites of greigite. An absence of the Verwey transition at temperatures between 90 and 295 K is established supporting a semimetal type of conductivity. The temperature and magnetic field dependences of the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of optical spectra were measured in Fe3S4 for the first time. The spectra differ substantially from that of the isostructural oxide Fe3O4. It is supposed that the MCD spectra of greigite nanoparticles result from the collective electron excitations in a wide band with superimposed peaks of the d–d transitions in Fe ions.
    Journal of Nanoparticle Research 15(1). · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: By employing a precise method for locating and directly imaging the active switching region in a resistive random access memory (RRAM) device, a nanoscale conducting channel consisting of an amorphous Ta(O) solid solution surrounded by nearly stoichiometric Ta(2) O(5) is observed. Structural and chemical analysis of the channel combined with temperature-dependent transport measurements indicate a unique resistance switching mechanism.
    Advanced Materials 11/2011; 23(47):5633-40. · 14.83 Impact Factor