Effects of PNPLA3 on Liver Fat and Metabolic Profile in Hispanic Children and Adolescents

Department of Preventive Medicine, Childhood Obesity Research Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Diabetes (Impact Factor: 8.47). 12/2010; 59(12):3127-30. DOI: 10.2337/db10-0554
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A genome-wide study of adults identified a variant of PNPLA3 (rs738409) associated with ∼twofold higher liver fat. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of PNPLA3 genotype on liver fat and other related metabolic outcomes in obese Hispanic children and adolescents.
Three hundred and twenty-seven Hispanics aged 8-18 years were genotyped for rs738409. One hundred and eighty-eight subjects had measures of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue volume and hepatic (HFF) and pancreatic (PFF) fat fraction by magnetic resonance imaging. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects did not have HFF measures but had extensive measures of insulin sensitivity and fasting lipids.
Liver fat in GG subjects was 1.7 and 2.4 times higher than GC and CC (11.1 ± 0.8% in GG vs. 6.6 ± 0.7% in GC and 4.7 ± 0.9% in CC; P < 0.0001), and this effect was observed even in the youngest children (8-10 years of age). The variant was not associated with VAT, SAT, PFF, or insulin sensitivity or other glucose/insulin indexes. However, Hispanic children carrying the GG genotype had significantly lower HDL cholesterol (40.9 ± 10.9 in CC vs. 37.0 ± 8.3 in CG vs. 35.7 ± 7.4 in GG; P = 0.03) and a tendency toward lower free fatty acid levels (P = 0.06).
These results provide new evidence that the effect of the PNPLA3 variant is apparent in Hispanic children and adolescents, is unique to fat deposition in liver as compared with other ectopic depots examined, and is associated with lower HDL cholesterol.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 polymorphism and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its subtypes simple steatosis(SS) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed-effects or random-effects models, with assessment for heterogeneity and publication bias. Twenty-three case-control studies involving 6071 NAFLD patients and 10366 controls were identified. The combined results showed a significant association between NAFLD risk and the rs738409 polymorphism in all genetic models (additive model: OR = 3.41, 95% CI = 2.57-4.52; P < 0.00001). In addition, evidence indicated that the rs738409 polymorphism was significantly associated with NASH in all genetic models (additive model: OR = 4.44, 95% CI = 3.39-5.82; P < 0.00001). The subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed that these changes were not influenced by the ethnicities and ages of subjects or by the source of controls. The rs738409 polymorphism was only significantly associated with risk of simple steatosis in the allele contrast and had no effect in the other genetic models. These findings suggest that the rs738409 polymorphism in PNPLA3 gene confers high cross-ethnicity risk for NAFLD and NASH development.
    Scientific Reports 03/2015; 5:9284. DOI:10.1038/srep09284 · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3 or adiponutrin) displays anabolic and catabolic activities in lipid metabolism, and has been reported to be significantly associated with liver fat content. Various studies have established a strong link between the 148 isoleucine to methionine protein variant (I148M) of PNPLA3 and liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, detailed demographic and ethnic characteristics of the I148M variant and its role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis have not been fully elucidated. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the association between the PNPLA3 I148M variant and NAFLD, and especially its role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis. First, we analyze the impact of demographic and ethnic characteristics of the PNPLA3 I148M variant and the presence of metabolic syndrome on the association between PNPLA3 I148M and NAFLD. Then, we explore the role of the PNPLA3 I148M in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis, and hypothesize the underlying mechanisms by speculating a pro-fibrogenic network. Finally, we briefly highlight future research that may elucidate the specific mechanisms of the PNPLA3 I148M variant in fibrogenesis, which, in turn, provides a theoretical foundation and valuable experimental data for the clinical management of nonalcoholic fatty liver fibrosis.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2015; 21(3):794-802. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i3.794 · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the last two decades, the rise in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity explains the emergence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. As described in adults, children and adolescents with fatty liver display insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia. Thus NAFLD has emerged as the hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a strong cardiovascular risk factor even at a very early age. Several studies, including pediatric populations, have reported independent associations between NAFLD and markers of subclinical atherosclerosis including impaired flow-mediated vasodilation, increased carotid artery intima-media thickness, and arterial stiffness, after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. Also, it has been shown that NAFLD is associated with cardiac alterations, including abnormal left ventricular structure and impaired diastolic function. The duration of these subclinical abnormalities may be important, because treatment to reverse the process is most likely to be effective earlier in the disease. In the present review, we examine the current evidence on the association between NAFLD and atherosclerosis as well as between NAFLD and cardiac dysfunction in the pediatric population, and discuss briefly the possible biological mechanisms linking NAFLD and cardiovascular changes. We also address the approach to treatment for this increasingly prevalent disease, which is likely to have an important future global impact on the burden of ill health, to prevent not only end-stage liver disease but also cardiovascular disease.

Full-text (4 Sources)

Available from
May 27, 2014