Overexpression of high-mobility group box 2 is associated with tumor aggressiveness and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT We investigated the expression of high-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its clinical effects with underlying mechanisms.
HMGB2 mRNA levels were measured in 334 HCC patients by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and HMGB2 protein levels in 173 HCC patients by immunohistochemical studies. The HMGB2 expression level was measured by Western blotting for three HCC cell lines. To clarify the precise role of HMGB2 on cell proliferation, we did in vitro analysis with expression vectors and small interfering RNAs.
HMGB2 mRNA and protein expression were significantly higher in HCC than in noncancerous surrounding tissues (P < 0.0001) and showed a positive correlation (ρ = 0.35, P < 0.001). HMGB2 overexpression was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival time, both at mRNA (P = 0.0054) and protein level (P = 0.023). Moreover, HMGB2 mRNA level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.0037). HMGB2 knockdown by small interfering RNAs decreased cell proliferation, and overexpression of HMGB2 by expression vectors diminished cisplatin- and etoposide-induced cell death.
Our clinical and in vitro data suggest that HMGB2 plays a significant role in tumor development and prognosis of HCC. These results can partly be explained by altered cell proliferations by HMGB2 associated with the antiapoptotic pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Our previous studies have shown that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) could physically associate with the retinoblastoma (RB) protein via an LXCXE (leucine-X-cysteine-X-glutamic; X=any amino acid) motif. An identical LXCXE motif is present in the HMGB1-3 protein sequences, whereas a near-consensus LXCXD (leucine-X-cysteine-X-asparagine; X=any amino acid) motif is found in the HMGB4 protein. In this study, we have demonstrated that like HMGB1, HMGB2-3 also associated with the RB in vitro and in vivo, as evidenced by glutathione-s-transferase capture and immunoprecipitation-Western blot assays. A point mutation of the LXCXE or LXCXD motif led to disruption of RB:HMGB1-4 interactions. Enforced expression of HMGB1-3 or HMGB4 by adenoviral-vector-mediated gene transfer resulted in significant inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation through an LXCXE- or LXCXD-dependent mechanism and an increased radiosensitivity through an LXCXE- or LXCXD-independent mechanism. These results suggest an important role of the LXCXE/D motif in RB:HMGB1-4 association and modulation of cancer cell growth, but not radiosensitivity.Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals 06/2012; 27(5):329-35. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A fundamental question in biology is how genome-wide changes in gene expression are enacted in response to a finite stimulus. Recent studies have mapped changes in nucleosome localization, determined the binding preferences for individual transcription factors, and shown that the genome adopts a nonrandom structure in vivo. What remains unclear is how global changes in the proteins bound to DNA alter chromatin structure and gene expression. We have addressed this question in the mouse heart, a system in which global gene expression and massive phenotypic changes occur without cardiac cell division, making the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling centrally important. To determine factors controlling genomic plasticity, we used mass spectrometry to measure chromatin-associated proteins. We have characterized the abundance of 305 chromatin-associated proteins in normal cells and measured changes in 108 proteins that accompany the progression of heart disease. These studies were conducted on a high mass accuracy instrument and confirmed in multiple biological replicates, facilitating statistical analysis and allowing us to interrogate the data bioinformatically for modules of proteins involved in similar processes. Our studies reveal general principles for global shifts in chromatin accessibility: altered linker to core histone ratio; differing abundance of chromatin structural proteins; and reprogrammed histone post-translational modifications. Using small interfering RNA-mediated loss-of-function in isolated cells, we demonstrate that the non-histone chromatin structural protein HMGB2 (but not HMGB1) suppresses pathologic cell growth in vivo and controls a gene expression program responsible for hypertrophic cell growth. Our findings reveal the basis for alterations in chromatin structure necessary for genome-wide changes in gene expression. These studies have fundamental implications for understanding how global chromatin remodeling occurs with specificity and accuracy, demonstrating that isoform-specific alterations in chromatin structural proteins can impart these features.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 01/2012; 11(6):M111.014258. · 7.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of molecular targeted agents is modest in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Efficacy of molecular targeted therapies has been better in cancer patients with high expression of actionable molecules defined as cognate target molecules. However, patient stratification based on the actionable molecules dictating the effectiveness of targeted drugs has remained understudied in HCC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN & RESULTS: Paired tumor and non-tumoral tissues derived from a total of 130 HCC patients were studied. Real-time RT-PCR was used to analyze the mRNA expression of actionable molecules in the tissues. mRNA levels of EGFR, VEGFR2, PDGFRβ, FGFR1, and mTOR were up-regulated in tumors compared to non-tumors in 35.4, 42.3, 61.5, 24.6, and 50.0% of patients, respectively. Up-regulation of EGFR was observed at early stage and tended to gradually decrease toward late stages (BCLC stage A: 41.9%; B: 30.8%; C: 17.6%). Frequency of VEGFR2 expression in tumors at stage C was lower than that in the other stages (BCLC stage A: 45.9%; B: 41.0%; C: 29.4%). PDGFRβ and mTOR were observed to be up-regulated in more than 50% of tumors in all the stages whereas FGFR1 was up-regulated in only about 20% of HCC irrespective of stages. A cluster analysis of actionable gene expression revealed that HCC can be categorized into different subtypes that predict the effectiveness of molecular targeted agents and combination therapies in clinical trials. Analysis of in vitro sensitivity to sorafenib demonstrated that HCC cells with up-regulation of PDGFRβ and c-Raf mRNA are more susceptible to sorafenib treatment in a dose and time-dependent manner than cells with low expression of the genes. mRNA expression analysis of actionable molecules could provide the rationale for new companion diagnostics-based therapeutic strategies in the treatment of HCC.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e64260. · 3.73 Impact Factor