DNA vaccine delivery by densely-packed and short microprojection arrays to skin protects against vaginal HSV-2 challenge.
ABSTRACT There is an unmet medical need for a prophylactic vaccine against herpes simplex virus (HSV). DNA vaccines and cutaneous vaccination have been tried for many applications, but few reports combine this vaccine composition and administration route. We compared DNA administration using the Nanopatch™, a solid microprojection device coated with vaccine comprised of thousands of short (110 μm) densly-packed projections (70 μm spacing), to standard intramuscular DNA vaccination in a mouse model of vaginal HSV-2 infection. A dose-response relationship was established for immunogenicity and survival in both vaccination routes. Appropriate doses administered by Nanopatch™ were highly immunogenic and enabled mouse survival. Vaginal HSV-2 DNA copy number day 1 post challenge correlated with survival, indicating that vaccine-elicited acquired immune responses can act quickly and locally. Solid, short, densely-packed arrays of microprojections applied to the skin are thus a promising route of administration for DNA vaccines.
- SourceAvailable from: Vladimir G Zarnitsyn[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Microneedle delivery of nucleic acids, in particular plasmid DNA (pDNA), to the skin represents a potential new approach for the clinical management of genetic skin diseases and cutaneous cancers, and for intracutaneous genetic immunisation. In this study excised human skin explants were used to investigate and optimise key parameters that will determine stable and effective microneedle-facilitated pDNA delivery. These include (i) high dose-loading of pDNA onto microneedle surfaces, (ii) stability and functionality of the coated pDNA, (iii) skin penetration capability of pDNA-coated microneedles, and (iv) efficient gene expression in human skin. Optimisation of a dip-coating method enabled significant increases in the loading capacity, up to 100μg of pDNA per 5-microneedle array. Coated microneedles were able to reproducibly perforate human skin at low (<1N) insertion forces. The physical stability of the coated pDNA was partially compromised on storage, although this was improved through the addition of saccharide excipients without detriment to the biological functionality of pDNA. The pDNA-coated microneedles facilitated reporter gene expression in viable human skin. The efficiency of gene expression from coated microneedles will depend upon suitable DNA loading, efficient and reproducible skin puncture and rapid in situ dissolution of the plasmid at the site of delivery.Journal of Controlled Release 04/2012; 160(3):561-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.04.005 · 7.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Micro-devices using mechanical means to target skin for improved drug and vaccine delivery have great promise for improved clinical healthcare. Fully realizing this promise requires a greater understanding of key micro-biomechanical properties for each of the different skin layers - that are both the mechanical barriers and biological targets of these devices. Here, we performed atomic force microscopy indentation on a micro-nano scale to quantify separately, in fresh mouse skin, the viscous and elastic behaviour of the stratum corneum, viable epidermis and dermis. By accessing each layer directly, we examined the response to nanoindentation at sub-cellular and bulk-cellular scale. We found that the dermis showed greatest mechanical stiffness (elastic moduli of 7.33-13.48 MPa for 6.62 μm and 1.90 μm diameter spherical probes respectively). In comparison, the stratum corneum and viable epidermis were weaker at 0.75-1.62 MPa and 0.49-1.51 MPa respectively (again with the lower values resulting from indentations with the large probe 6.62 μm). The living cell layer of the epidermis (viable epidermis) showed greatest viscoelasticity - almost fully relaxing from shallow indentation - whilst the other layers reached a plateau after relaxing by around 40%. With small scale (sub-micron) AFM indentation, we directly determined the effects of different layer constituents - in particular, the dermis showed that some indents contacted collagen fibrils and others contacted ground substance/cellular areas. This work has far reaching implications for the design of micro-devices using mechanical means to deliver drugs or vaccines into the skin; providing key characterized mechanical property values for each constituent of the target delivery material.Biomaterials 03/2011; 32(20):4670-81. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.03.012 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dry-coated microprojections can deliver vaccine to abundant antigen-presenting cells in the skin and induce efficient immune responses and the dry-coated vaccines are expected to be thermostable at elevated temperatures. In this paper, we show that we have dramatically improved our previously reported gas-jet drying coating method and greatly increased the delivery efficiency of coating from patch to skin to from 6.5% to 32.5%, by both varying the coating parameters and removing the patch edge. Combined with our previous dose sparing report of influenza vaccine delivery in a mouse model, the results show that we now achieve equivalent protective immune responses as intramuscular injection (with the needle and syringe), but with only 1/30th of the actual dose. We also show that influenza vaccine coated microprojection patches are stable for at least 6 months at 23°C, inducing comparable immunogenicity with freshly coated patches. The dry-coated microprojection patches thus have key and unique attributes in ultimately meeting the medical need in certain low-resource regions with low vaccine affordability and difficulty in maintaining "cold-chain" for vaccine storage and transport.Journal of Controlled Release 02/2011; 152(3):349-55. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.02.026 · 7.26 Impact Factor