Recombinant human growth hormone for the treatment of growth disorders in children: A systematic review and economic evaluation

Southampton Health Technology Assessments Centre, Southampton, UK.
Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) 09/2010; 14(42):1-209, iii-iv. DOI: 10.3310/hta14420
Source: PubMed


Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is licensed for short stature associated with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS), Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), short stature homeobox-containing gene deficiency (SHOX-D) and being born small for gestational age (SGA).
To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of rhGH compared with treatment strategies without rhGH for children with GHD, TS, PWS, CRI, SHOX-D and those born SGA.
The systematic review used a priori methods. Key databases were searched (e.g. MEDLINE, EMBASE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database and eight others) for relevant studies from their inception to June 2009. A decision-analytical model was developed to determine cost-effectiveness in the UK.
Two reviewers assessed titles and abstracts of studies identified by the search strategy, obtained the full text of relevant papers, and screened them against inclusion criteria. STUDY APPRAISAL: Data from included studies were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Quality of included studies was assessed using standard criteria, applied by one reviewer and checked by a second. Clinical effectiveness studies were synthesised through a narrative review.
Twenty-eight randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in 34 publications were included in the systematic review. GHD: Children in the rhGH group grew 2.7 cm/year faster than untreated children and had a statistically significantly higher height standard deviation score (HtSDS) after 1 year: -2.3 ± 0.45 versus -2.8 ± 0.45. TS: In one study, treated girls grew 9.3 cm more than untreated girls. In a study of younger children, the difference was 7.6 cm after 2 years. HtSDS values were statistically significantly higher in treated girls. PWS: Infants receiving rhGH for 1 year grew significantly taller (6.2 cm more) than those untreated. Two studies reported a statistically significant difference in HtSDS in favour of rhGH. CRI: rhGH-treated children in a 1-year study grew an average of 3.6 cm more than untreated children. HtSDS was statistically significantly higher in treated children in two studies. SGA: Criteria were amended to include children of 3+ years with no catch-up growth, with no reference to mid-parental height. Only one of the RCTs used the licensed dose; the others used higher doses. Adult height (AH) was approximately 4 cm higher in rhGH-treated patients in the one study to report this outcome, and AH-gain SDS was also statistically significantly higher in this group. Mean HtSDS was higher in treated than untreated patients in four other studies (significant in two). SHOX-D: After 2 years' treatment, children were approximately 6 cm taller than the control group and HtSDS was statistically significantly higher in treated children. The incremental cost per quality adjusted life-year (QALY) estimates of rhGH compared with no treatment were: 23,196 pounds for GHD, 39,460 pounds for TS, 135,311 pounds for PWS, 39,273 pounds for CRI, 33,079 pounds for SGA and 40,531 pounds for SHOX-D. The probability of treatment of each of the conditions being cost-effective at 30,000 pounds was: 95% for GHD, 19% for TS, 1% for PWS, 16% for CRI, 38% for SGA and 15% for SHOX-D.
Generally poorly reported studies, some of short duration.
Statistically significantly larger HtSDS values were reported for rhGH-treated children with GHD, TS, PWS, CRI, SGA and SHOX-D. rhGH-treated children with PWS also showed statistically significant improvements in body composition measures. Only treatment of GHD would be considered cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of 20,000 to 30,000 pounds per QALY gained. This analysis suggests future research should include studies of longer than 2 years reporting near-final height or final adult height.

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Available from: Geoff K Frampton, Oct 20, 2014
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    • "Short stature in childhood, generally defined by a height that is at least two standard deviations below normal (1), may be caused by several different factors (2, 3). One of the reasons causing short stature in childhood is GH deficiency (GHD) (2, 3), although short stature may also be idiopathic (idiopathic short stature, ISS) (4). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess changes in quality of life (QoL) in Japanese children with GH deficiency (GHD) after 12 mo of GH treatment or with idiopathic short stature (ISS) after 12 mo without treatment. Children with GHD were treated with GH after enrollment. Outcome measures included the parent-rated Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self-Report Form (YSR), and height standard deviation scores (SDS). Total CBCL scores significantly decreased in children with GHD (n = 152, mean change (standard deviation [SD]) = -3.42 [11.21]) and ISS (n = 129, mean change = -4.82 [10.09]) after 12 mo (p < 0.001). Total YSR scores (mean change = -9.21 [14.07]) and height SDS (mean change = 0.35 [0.38]) significantly decreased in children with GHD (p < 0.001), but were unchanged in children with ISS. The change in total YSR score was significantly correlated with the change in height SDS in children with GHD (r = -0.516, p = 0.003). Our findings demonstrate that GH treatment can improve QoL in Japanese children with GHD. The correlation between the changes in total YSR score and height SDS demonstrated that increased height resulted in improved QoL.
    Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology 07/2014; 23(3):83-92. DOI:10.1297/cpe.23.83
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    • "It has been suggested that recombinant human growth hormone (GH) may help overcome short stature in patients with MPS II [91]. GH therapy has been shown to be well tolerated and effective in improving linear growth in patients with GH deficiency, Turner syndrome and other growth disorders [92-94]; however, experience in patients with MPS II is very limited. The only published report of GH therapy in patients with MPS II is provided by Polgreen & Miller, who observed transient increases in growth velocity in two patients treated for up to 1 year [91]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a rare, life-limiting, X-linked recessive disease characterised by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. Consequent accumulation of glycosaminoglycans leads to pathological changes in multiple body systems. Age at onset, signs and symptoms, and disease progression are heterogeneous, and patients may present with many different manifestations to a wide range of specialists. Expertise in diagnosing and managing MPS II varies widely between countries, and substantial delays between disease onset and diagnosis can occur. In recent years, disease-specific treatments such as enzyme replacement therapy and stem cell transplantation have helped to address the underlying enzyme deficiency in patients with MPS II. However, the multisystem nature of this disorder and the irreversibility of some manifestations mean that most patients require substantial medical support from many different specialists, even if they are receiving treatment. This article presents an overview of how to recognise, diagnose, and care for patients with MPS II. Particular focus is given to the multidisciplinary nature of patient management, which requires input from paediatricians, specialist nurses, otorhinolaryngologists, orthopaedic surgeons, ophthalmologists, cardiologists, pneumologists, anaesthesiologists, neurologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, psychologists, social workers, homecare companies and patient societies. Take-home message Expertise in recognising and treating patients with MPS II varies widely between countries. This article presents pan-European recommendations for the diagnosis and management of this life-limiting disease.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 11/2011; 6(1):72. DOI:10.1186/1750-1172-6-72 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Growth hormone deficiency (GHD), which occurs when the pituitary gland produces insufficient growth hormone (GH) for adequate growth and development, can arise from a plethora of pathologies, although the cause in individual patients often remains obscure.1 This pathogenic heterogeneity hinders accurate epidemiological estimates; in the United Kingdom (UK), GHD of unknown origin occurs approximately once in every 3800 births.1 Untreated males and females with GHD typically attain final heights of 134–146 cm and 128–134 cm, respectively,1 and endure a variety of concurrent metabolic and psychosocial morbidities, underscoring the importance of replacement GH therapy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is effective and safe when used to treat growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children. However, it has been suggested that switching between different types of rhGH can have a detrimental effect on patients. Methods The current analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of rhGH in children who received continuous Omnitrope® (Sandoz GmbH, Kundl, Austria) therapy either with lyophilized powder for solution or ready-to-use solution, with children who received 9 months of treatment with Genotropin® (Pfizer Limited, Sandwich, UK) followed by Omnitrope solution thereafter. Changes to height, height SD score (SDS), height velocity SDS, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) levels, and IGF binding protein (IGFBP-3) levels were assessed using data from three trials. Results Baseline demographics of the three study groups were similar. Over an 18-month period there were no observable differences between the three groups with respect to height, height SDS, height velocity SDS, IGF-1 levels, and IGFBP-3 levels. This result was corroborated by the model data, whereby most data points for Omnitrope-treated children fell within the defined limits of the prediction model based on Genotropin data. Few adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurred. Conclusions Switching from Genotropin to Omnitrope solution has no impact on efficacy or safety in children with GHD, and the various rhGH preparations are well tolerated.
    09/2011; 1(1). DOI:10.1007/s13554-011-0004-8
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