Cellular sources and immune functions of interleukin-9.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA.
Nature Reviews Immunology 10/2010; 10(10):683-7. DOI: 10.1038/nri2848
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Interleukin-9 (IL-9) has attracted renewed interest owing to the identification of its expression by multiple T helper (T(H)) cell subsets, including T(H)2 cells, T(H)9 cells, T(H)17 cells and regulatory T (T(Reg)) cells. Here, we provide a broad overview of the conditions that are required for cells to produce IL-9 and describe the cellular targets and nature of the immune responses that are induced by IL-9.

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    • "Interestingly, polarized Th2 cells can be deviated into Th9 cells by exposure to TGF-β, which results in down-regulation of GATA-3 and loss of IL-4 and IL-5 production . Using various gene knockout and transgenic mouse systems, Th9 cells have been shown to contribute to autoimmune and allergic inflammation processes (Noelle and Nowak, 2009). However, one recent study identified Th9 cells in healthy human blood and skin and also in metastatic lesions of patients with stage IV melanoma (Purwar et al., 2012). "
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    Frontiers in Oncology 03/2013; 3:63. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2013.00063
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    • "However, TAMs seem to play a decisive role in the induction of Treg response as TAMs induced the production of TGF-␤ (the marker cytokine for Treg) by naïve CD4 + T cells (Fig. 2b). Evidences suggest that a unique cytokine pattern is associated with the induction of a specific T cell response (Noelle and Nowak 2010). Herein, we disclose that MDSCs mediated induction of IL-17 + T cell is independent of MDSC-T cell contact but crucially depends on the cytokines secreted by MDSCs as substantiated by the fact that addition of cell free supernatant of MDSCs or transwell culture of MDSCs with T cells were highly efficient of polarizing naïve T cells toward IL-17 producing type (Fig. 4a). "
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    Immunobiology 08/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.imbio.2012.08.271 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    • "The scenario becomes more complex when other functional subsets are being proposed according to the cytokine they produced and their functional effects. Thus, additional regulatory T cells, such as Tr1 (TGFb) or Tr3 (IL-10), as well as other Th cells, such as Th9 (IL-9) or Th22 (IL-22) have recently been described [7] [8]. "
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