Cellular sources and immune functions of interleukin-9.
ABSTRACT Interleukin-9 (IL-9) has attracted renewed interest owing to the identification of its expression by multiple T helper (T(H)) cell subsets, including T(H)2 cells, T(H)9 cells, T(H)17 cells and regulatory T (T(Reg)) cells. Here, we provide a broad overview of the conditions that are required for cells to produce IL-9 and describe the cellular targets and nature of the immune responses that are induced by IL-9.
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ABSTRACT: Although it was discovered more than two decades ago, new information concerning the biological activities of IL-9 has been provided in recent years, after the isolation of cells that selectively produce this cytokine, designated "Th9." Th9 cells are generated in vitro by polarization, mainly by TGF-β and IL-4, during activation with the specific antigen, or with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies. This review deals mainly with Th9 generated by the former, "physiological" mode of activation. Of particular interest is the unique production kinetics of IL-9: the cytokine is produced very rapidly, but after reaching its peak (day 3 in our studies), it declines sharply to trace levels. In addition to IL-9, Th9 cells also produce similar amounts of another cytokine, IL-10, but the production kinetics of these two cytokines are strikingly different. Antigen-activated Th9 in our studies also developed pathogenic capacity, but only during the short time period of peak IL-9 production. Interestingly, no IL-9-producing cells were detected in sites of inflammation induced by Th9, in contrast to Thl and Thl7. The unique features of Th9 cells and their products are discussed with regards to the known and assumed functions of the cytokine.Critical Reviews in Immunology 01/2012; 32(1):1-10. · 3.38 Impact Factor
Article: T cells in myositis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: T cells of both the CD4 and CD8 lineage are commonly found in affected tissues of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, but understanding the contribution of these cells to immunopathogenesis remains challenging. Given recent advances in identifying more myositis-associated autoantibodies and their putative targets, we suggest that studies on autoreactive T cells targeting those autoantigens are one way forward. Another (so far, more frequently used) approach comes from studies on effector T cells in the context of myositis. This review summarizes recent advances and current hypotheses in both of these contexts.Arthritis research & therapy 12/2012; 14(6):230. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents a fatal neoplasia with a high mortality rate. Effective early detection methods are needed since this is the best way to cure this disease. During the last several years, many investigations focused on determining relevant biomarkers that may be present during early stages of pancreatic tumor development. Although several biomarkers have been proposed for pancreatic cancer detection, the clinical applicability has been confusing. Currently, although CA19-9 is one test used, the sensitivity and specificity for the disease is less than optimal. Here, we review several new potential serum, plasma and stool markers that are currently under evaluation. Although these have not been sufficiently validated for routine clinical use, these markers could prove valuable with further investigations. We keep the hope that a combination of some of these novel biomarkers can be a useful tool for early PDAC diagnosis before image techniques and/or patient's symptoms reveal disease in an incurable state.Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 01/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor