APOE ε2 allele is associated with larger regional cortical thicknesses and volumes.
ABSTRACT The protective effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε2 allele against Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial.
Our purpose was to clarify if the ε2 allele affects regional cortical thicknesses and volumes.
Regional cortical thicknesses and volumes were measured with an automated pipeline in 109 subjects with mild cognitive impairment, 114 AD patients and 105 age-matched healthy controls.
In the mild cognitive impairment group, the ε2 carriers had thicker regional cortices at the transverse temporal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus than the subjects with ε3/ε3, and a larger cerebral gray matter and smaller lateral ventricles than the ε3/ε3 and ε4 carriers. In the AD group, the ε2 carriers had significantly thicker entorhinal and transverse temporal cortices, a larger whole cerebral gray matter, and smaller lateral ventricles than the subjects with the ε3/ε3 genotype, and a significantly thicker entorhinal cortex and larger cerebral gray matter than ε4 carriers. No APOE2 effect was found in the control group.
The APOE ε2 allele is associated with larger regional cortical thicknesses and volumes in mild cognitive impairment and AD.
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ABSTRACT: The APOE*E4 allele of the gene for apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been reported as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD) to varying degrees in different ethnic groups. To compare APOE*E4-AD epidemiological associations in India and the United States in a cross-national epidemiological study. Case-control design within 2 cohort studies, using standardized cognitive screening and clinical evaluation to identify AD and other dementias and polymerase chain reaction to identify APOE genotyping. Rural community samples, aged 55 years or older (n=4450) in Ballabgarh, India, and 70 years or older (n=886) in the Monongahela Valley region of southwestern Pennsylvania. Criteria of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association for probable and possible AD and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale for dementia staging. Frequency of APOE*E4 was significantly lower (P<.001) in Ballabgarh vs the Monongahela Valley (0.07 vs 0.11). Frequency of probable or possible AD, with CDR of at least 1.0, in the Indian vs US samples, was as follows: aged 55 to 69 years, 0.1% (Indian sample only); aged 70 to 79 years, 0.7% vs 3.1%; aged 80 years or older, 4.0% vs 15.7%. Among those aged 70 years or older, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for AD among carriers of APOE*E4 vs noncarriers were 3.4 (1.2-9.3) and 2.3 (1.3-4.0) in the Indian and US samples, respectively, and not significantly different between cohorts (P=. 20). This first report of APOE*E4 and AD from the Indian subcontinent shows very low prevalence of AD in Ballabgarh, India, but association of APOE*E4 with AD at similar strength in Indian and US samples. Arch Neurol. 2000.JAMA Neurology 06/2000; 57(6):824-30. · 7.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease include insidious onset and progressive impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. There are no motor, sensory, or coordination deficits early in the disease. The diagnosis cannot be determined by laboratory tests. These tests are important primarily in identifying other possible causes of dementia that must be excluded before the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease may be made with confidence. Neuropsychological tests provide confirmatory evidence of the diagnosis of dementia and help to assess the course and response to therapy. The criteria proposed are intended to serve as a guide for the diagnosis of probable, possible, and definite Alzheimer's disease; these criteria will be revised as more definitive information become available.Neurology 07/2011; 77(4):333. · 8.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a longitudinal multisite observational study of healthy elders, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), urine serum, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, as well as clinical/psychometric assessments are acquiredat multiple time points. All data will be cross-linked and made available to the general scientific community. The purpose of this report is to describe the MRI methods employed in ADNI. The ADNI MRI core established specifications thatguided protocol development. A major effort was devoted toevaluating 3D T1-weighted sequences for morphometric analyses. Several options for this sequence were optimized for the relevant manufacturer platforms and then compared in a reduced-scale clinical trial. The protocol selected for the ADNI study includes: back-to-back 3D magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE) scans; B1-calibration scans when applicable; and an axial proton density-T2 dual contrast (i.e., echo) fast spin echo/turbo spin echo (FSE/TSE) for pathology detection. ADNI MRI methods seek to maximize scientific utility while minimizing the burden placed on participants. The approach taken in ADNI to standardization across sites and platforms of the MRI protocol, postacquisition corrections, and phantom-based monitoring of all scanners could be used as a model for other multisite trials. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 02/2008; 27(4):685 - 691. · 2.57 Impact Factor