A simple, effective method to create laparoscopic renal protective hypothermia with cold saline surface irrigation: clinical application and assessment.
ABSTRACT We previously described the use of cold saline surface irrigation to achieve protective renal hypothermia in a laparoscopic partial nephrectomy porcine model. We now present our clinical application of this technique and characterization of the hypothermic effect during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
Seven patients underwent elective laparoscopic partial nephrectomy augmented with our hypothermia technique. Parenchymal temperature sensors were placed to confirm cooling efficacy and efficiency. After transperitoneal exposure of the kidney we performed temporary hilar vascular occlusion. Surface cooling with almost freezing normal saline was delivered with a laparoscopic suction/irrigation device. Tumor laparoscopic resection and renal reconstruction were completed. Outcome measures included intraoperative changes with hypothermia and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate changes.
All patients successfully underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy without complications or evidence of residual disease. A protective renal parenchymal temperature of less than 20C was achieved at a mean application time of 8.3 minutes. The hypothermic window of 15C to 25C was maintained an average of 30.4 minutes. In 2 cases cooling was repeated and 4 minutes were required to lower the temperature below 20C. The overall mean core body temperature decrease was 1.28C. At a mean followup of 22.4 months the median preoperative, immediate postoperative and final estimated glomerular filtration rate was 75, 65 and 71 ml/minute/1.73 m(2), respectively. There was no evidence of disease recurrence on followup imaging.
Our technique involving cold saline surface irrigation to achieve protective renal hypothermia is reproducible, and uses readily available laparoscopic instruments and equipment. This technique can be done simply and effectively, and may expand the use of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: During partial nephrectomy, renal hypothermia has been shown to decrease ischemia induced renal damage which occurs from renal hilar clamping. In this study we investigate the infusion rate required to safely cool the entire renal unit in a porcine model using retrograde irrigation of iced saline via dual-lumen ureteral catheter. Materials and Methods: Renal cortical, renal medullary, bowel and rectal temperatures during retrograde cooling in a laparoscopic porcine model were monitored in six renal units. Iced normal saline was infused at 300 cc/hour, 600 cc/hour, 1000 cc/hour and gravity (800 cc/hour) for 600 seconds with and without hilar clamping. Results: Retrograde cooling with hilar clamping provided rapid medullary renal cooling and significant hypothermia of the medulla and cortex at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. With hilar clamping, cortical temperatures decreased at -0.90 C/min. reaching a threshold temperature of 26.90 C, and medullary temperatures decreased at -0.90 C/min. reaching a temperature of 26.10 C over 600 seconds on average for combined data at infusion rates = 600 cc/hour. The lowest renal temperatures were achieved with gravity infusion. Without renal hilum clamping, retrograde cooling was minimal at all infusion rates. Conclusions: Significant renal cooling by gravity infusion of iced cold saline via a duel lumen catheter with a clamped renal hilum was achieved in a porcine model. Continuous retrograde irrigation with iced saline via a two way ureteral catheter may be an effective method to induce renal hypothermia in patients undergoing robotic assisted and/or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.International braz j urol: official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology 01/2013; 39(1):37-45.
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ABSTRACT: Partial nephrectomy has become the 'gold standard" for treatment of suspicious renal masses when surgery is required. The advantages in terms of renal preservation without compromising cancer control are well accepted provided lesions are carefully selected. The challenge now is to improve upon patient selection for partial nephrectomy, optimising the surgical technique and also considering how to reduce ischaemic time to the kidney that will remain. This article explores such issues and summarises the current status of partial nephrectomyJournal of Analytical Oncology. 06/2012; 1(1-1).
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Renal hypothermia is commonly utilized during nephron sparing surgery to minimize ischemic tissue damage. We propose a method to induce renal hypothermia using continuous retrograde irrigation of iced saline via dual-lumen ureteral catheter. We will report results in an ex vivo porcine model followed by clinical outcomes in a series of patients with solitary kidney undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, we performed temperature measurements during retrograde renal cooling in a porcine model before investigating the technique in humans. In porcine experiments, renal cortical temperature measurements (n = 270) were recorded during retrograde infusion of ice-cold saline via a 10-Fr dual-lumen ureteral catheter placed in ureter. Subsequently, a series of patients (n = 10) undergoing RALPN with a solitary kidney had concomitant intra-operative retrograde renal cooling. A 10-Fr dual-lumen ureteral catheter was placed at initiation of anesthesia and cold saline initiated prior to renal artery clamping. RESULTS: Porcine cortical temperature reached the target temperature (≤20 °C) within an average of 203 s of retrograde irrigation. In the clinical series, patients' mean preoperative creatinine was 1.16 mg/dL (GFR = 60). At a median follow-up of 10 months (range 1-27 months), postoperative creatinine was 1.50 mg/dL (GFR = 41.28). Average clamp time was 19.4 min. All patients had negative surgical margins. CONCLUSIONS: Retrograde irrigation is a technically feasible method to induce cold ischemia, which may provide an additional protective effect of renal function in patients who have a solitary kidney undergoing surgery via a minimally invasive approach.International Urology and Nephrology 02/2013; · 1.33 Impact Factor