A Simple, Effective Method to Create Laparoscopic Renal Protective Hypothermia With Cold Saline Surface Irrigation: Clinical Application and Assessment
ABSTRACT We previously described the use of cold saline surface irrigation to achieve protective renal hypothermia in a laparoscopic partial nephrectomy porcine model. We now present our clinical application of this technique and characterization of the hypothermic effect during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
Seven patients underwent elective laparoscopic partial nephrectomy augmented with our hypothermia technique. Parenchymal temperature sensors were placed to confirm cooling efficacy and efficiency. After transperitoneal exposure of the kidney we performed temporary hilar vascular occlusion. Surface cooling with almost freezing normal saline was delivered with a laparoscopic suction/irrigation device. Tumor laparoscopic resection and renal reconstruction were completed. Outcome measures included intraoperative changes with hypothermia and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate changes.
All patients successfully underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy without complications or evidence of residual disease. A protective renal parenchymal temperature of less than 20C was achieved at a mean application time of 8.3 minutes. The hypothermic window of 15C to 25C was maintained an average of 30.4 minutes. In 2 cases cooling was repeated and 4 minutes were required to lower the temperature below 20C. The overall mean core body temperature decrease was 1.28C. At a mean followup of 22.4 months the median preoperative, immediate postoperative and final estimated glomerular filtration rate was 75, 65 and 71 ml/minute/1.73 m(2), respectively. There was no evidence of disease recurrence on followup imaging.
Our technique involving cold saline surface irrigation to achieve protective renal hypothermia is reproducible, and uses readily available laparoscopic instruments and equipment. This technique can be done simply and effectively, and may expand the use of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
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ABSTRACT: Retroperitoneoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN) is one of the standard methods for treating T1-stage renal carcinoma, which has a narrow operational space and a difficult surgical procedure. The aim of this study was to examine the safety and feasibility of renal-rotation techniques in RPN. Between April 2012 and June 2014, the renal-rotation technique in RPN was performed in 22 male and 16 female patients, aged between 31 and 75 years (mean, 52 years), with stage T1N0M0 renal-cell carcinoma. In 29 cases the tumor was located at the ventral side of the kidney, including 22 cases at the renal hilum, and in nine cases the tumor was located at the inferior pole of the kidney. The tumor size was between 1.5 and 4.6 cm (mean, 2.8 cm). The results showed that, in all 38 cases, the procedure was successfully accomplished without conversion to open surgery. There were no intraoperative complications and only three cases of postoperative complications. The surgery duration was between 45 and 116 min (mean, 59 min); blood loss was between 10 and 120 ml (mean, 40 ml) and no patients required a blood transfusion. The average kidney ischemia time was 21 min (range, 15-38 min). No patients had local recurrence or metastasis after follow-up of between one and 26 months. In conclusion, the application of the renal-rotation technique in RPN for tumors located at the ventral side, renal hilum or at the inferior pole of the kidney is safe and feasible and worth wider clinical application.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 04/2015; 9(4):1149-1152. DOI:10.3892/etm.2015.2294 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: During partial nephrectomy, renal hypothermia has been shown to decrease ischemia induced renal damage which occurs from renal hilar clamping. In this study we investigate the infusion rate required to safely cool the entire renal unit in a porcine model using retrograde irrigation of iced saline via dual-lumen ureteral catheter. Materials and Methods: Renal cortical, renal medullary, bowel and rectal temperatures during retrograde cooling in a laparoscopic porcine model were monitored in six renal units. Iced normal saline was infused at 300 cc/hour, 600 cc/hour, 1000 cc/hour and gravity (800 cc/hour) for 600 seconds with and without hilar clamping. Results: Retrograde cooling with hilar clamping provided rapid medullary renal cooling and significant hypothermia of the medulla and cortex at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. With hilar clamping, cortical temperatures decreased at -0.90 C/min. reaching a threshold temperature of 26.90 C, and medullary temperatures decreased at -0.90 C/min. reaching a temperature of 26.10 C over 600 seconds on average for combined data at infusion rates = 600 cc/hour. The lowest renal temperatures were achieved with gravity infusion. Without renal hilum clamping, retrograde cooling was minimal at all infusion rates. Conclusions: Significant renal cooling by gravity infusion of iced cold saline via a duel lumen catheter with a clamped renal hilum was achieved in a porcine model. Continuous retrograde irrigation with iced saline via a two way ureteral catheter may be an effective method to induce renal hypothermia in patients undergoing robotic assisted and/or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.International braz j urol: official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology 01/2013; 39(1):37-45. DOI:10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2013.01.06 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To outline our technique for intracorporeal cooling with ice slush during robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN), with real-time parenchymal temperature monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eleven consecutive patients with enhancing solid renal masses suitable for treatment with RPN between September 2013 and January 2014 were included in the analysis. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Preoperative patient characteristics, intraoperative surgical parameters including patient body temperature and ipsilateral kidney temperature with real-time monitoring, and short-term functional outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS Median age was 55 years (range, 39-75 years) and American Society of Anesthesiologists score was 3 (range, 2-4). Median tumor size was 4 cm (range, 2.3-7.1) and RENAL nephrometry score was 9 (range, 5-11). One patient had a solitary kidney. During cooling, the lowest median renal parenchymal temperature was 17.05 degrees C (range, 11 degrees C-26 degrees C) and cold ischemia time was 27.17 minutes (range, 18-49 minutes). Median time to latest postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate was 12 days (range, 2-30 days). Median glomerular filtration rate preservation was 81% (range, 47.9%-126%). There was one positive margin. There were no postoperative complications, and no patients experienced a prolonged ileus. The limitations of this study include a small number of patients and short-term follow-up. CONCLUSION RPN with renal hypothermia using intracorporeal ice slush is technically feasible. Our simplified method of introducing the ice slush was free of complications and highly reproducible. The use of a needle temperature probe allowed us to monitor in real time cooling of the renal parenchyma. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc.Urology 09/2014; 84(3):712-8. DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2014.05.008 · 2.13 Impact Factor