Poly(I:C) is an effective adjuvant for antibody and multi-functional CD4+ T cell responses to Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and αDEC-CSP in non human primates

Vaccine Research Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 10/2010; 28(45):7256-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.098
Source: PubMed


Development of a fully effective vaccine against the pre-erythrocytic stage of malaria infection will likely require induction of both humoral and cellular immune responses. Protein based vaccines can elicit such broad-based immunity depending on the adjuvant and how the protein is formulated. Here to assess these variables, non human primates (NHP) were immunized three times with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (CSP) or CSP cloned into MG38, a monoclonal antibody that targets DEC-205 (αDEC-CSP), an endocytic receptor on dendritic cells (DCs). Both vaccines were administered with or without poly(I:C) as adjuvant. Following three immunizations, the magnitude and quality of cytokine secreting CD4+ T cells were comparable between CSP+poly(I:C) and αDEC-CSP+poly(I:C) groups with both regimens eliciting multi-functional cytokine responses. However, NHP immunized with CSP+poly(I:C) had significantly higher serum titers of CSP-specific IgG antibodies and indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) titers against Pf sporozoites. Furthermore, sera from both CSP or αDEC-CSP+poly(I:C) immunized animals limited sporozoite invasion of a hepatocyte cell line (HC04) in vitro. To determine whether CSP-specific responses could be enhanced, all NHP primed with CSP or αDEC-CSP+poly(I:C) were boosted with a single dose of 150,000 irradiated Pf sporozoites (PfSPZ) intravenously. Remarkably, boosting had no effect on the CSP-specific immunity. Finally, immunization with CSP+poly-ICLC reduced malaria parasite burden in the liver in an experimental mouse model. Taken together, these data showing that poly(I:C) is an effective adjuvant for inducing potent antibody and Th1 immunity with CSP based vaccines offers a potential alternative to the existing protein based pre-erythrocytic vaccines.

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    • "While most adjuvants can induce antibody responses, generation of CD8+ T-cell immunity has proved particularly difficult (122). Immunization studies in non-human primates showed that Poly ICLC which stimulate multiple PPRs (TLR3, RIG-I, and MDA-5) and TLR7/8 agonists are currently the most potent known adjuvants for induction of T helper 1 and CD8+ T-cell responses (123–126). Poly ICLC and TLR7/8 agonist are the only TLR ligands capable of inducing both IL-12 and type I interferon, which are required for efficient cross-priming (53, 70, 114, 118). In mice, multiple cell types need to be stimulated for the production of IL-12 and type I interferon. "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite significant effort, the development of effective vaccines inducing strong and durable T-cell responses against intracellular pathogens and cancer cells has remained a challenge. The initiation of effector CD8(+) T-cell responses requires the presentation of peptides derived from internalized antigen on class I major histocompatibility complex molecules by dendritic cells (DCs) in a process called cross-presentation. A current strategy to enhance the effectiveness of vaccination is to deliver antigens directly to DCs. This is done via selective targeting of antigen using monoclonal antibodies directed against endocytic receptors on the surface of the DCs. In this review, we will discuss considerations relevant to the design of such vaccines: the existence of DC subsets with specialized functions, the impact of the antigen intracellular trafficking on cross-presentation, and the influence of maturation signals received by DCs on the outcome of the immune response.
    Frontiers in Immunology 05/2014; 5:255. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00255
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    • "Previous studies utilizing polyIC or polyICLC as an adjuvant have used dose levels several logs higher than those described in our report. In murine vaccination models, dose levels of 50 µg (administered subcutaneously) were administered with a malaria vaccine [33], [53]. A liposome-encapsulated form of polyICLC was also tested with intranasal administration in mice, wherein a dose of 20 µg of polyICLC increased the efficacy of an H5N1 vaccine [54]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying safe and effective adjuvants is critical for the advanced development of protein-based vaccines. Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) agonists are increasingly being explored as potential adjuvants, but there is concern that the efficacy of these molecules may be dependent on potentially dangerous levels of non-specific immune activation. The filovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine protects mice, guinea pigs, and nonhuman primates from viral challenge. In this study, we explored the impact of a stabilized dsRNA mimic, polyICLC, on VLP vaccination of C57BL/6 mice and Hartley guinea pigs. We show that at dose levels as low as 100 ng, the adjuvant increased the efficacy of the vaccine in mice. Antigen-specific, polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T cell responses and antibody responses increased significantly upon inclusion of adjuvant. To determine whether the efficacy of polyICLC correlated with systemic immune activation, we examined serum cytokine levels and cellular activation in the draining lymph node. PolyICLC administration was associated with increases in TNFα, IL6, MCP1, MIP1α, KC, and MIP1β levels in the periphery and with the activation of dendritic cells (DCs), NK cells, and B cells. However, this activation resolved within 24 to 72 hours at efficacious adjuvant dose levels. These studies are the first to examine the polyICLC-induced enhancement of antigen-specific immune responses in the context of non-specific immune activation, and they provide a framework from which to consider adjuvant dose levels.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89735. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089735 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Poly(I:C) could increase Th1 cytokines and type I IFNs by activating innate immunity through TLR3 and some other molecules mediating signal transduction. Then, DC maturation and B cell activation are induced [25]. Potent CD4+ T cell and humoral immune responses can thus be induced. "
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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists reportedly have potent antiviral and antitumor activities and may be a new kind of adjuvant for enhancing immune efficacy. Resiquimod (R848) is an imidazoquinoline compound with potent antiviral activity and functions through the TLR7/TLR8 MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] is a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA that induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the activation of NF-kappaB through TLR3. This study investigated the potential of R848 and poly(I:C) as an adjuvant 146S foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine formulated with aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3). Antibody titers to FMDV and CD8+ T cells were markedly enhanced in mice immunized to 146S FMDV + Al(OH)3 + R848 + poly(I:C) compared with mice immunized to FMDV + ISA206. IFN-gamma secretion substantially increased compared with IL-4 secretion by splenic T cells stimulated with FMDV antigens in vitro, suggesting that R848, poly(I:C), and with Al(OH)3 together biased the immune response toward a Th1-type direction. These results indicated that the R848 and poly(I:C) together with Al(OH)3 enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses to immunization with 146S FMDV antigens. Thus, this new vaccine formulation can be used for FMDV prevention.
    BMC Veterinary Research 01/2014; 10(1):2. DOI:10.1186/1746-6148-10-2 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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