Protocol biopsy-driven interventions after pediatric renal transplantation

Department of Pediatrics, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
Pediatric Transplantation (Impact Factor: 1.44). 12/2010; 14(8):1012-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2010.01399.x
Source: PubMed


Kanzelmeyer NK, Ahlenstiel T, Drube J, Froede K, Kreuzer M, Broecker V, Ehrich JHH, Melk A, Pape L. Protocol biopsy-driven interventions after pediatric renal transplantation. Pediatr Transplantation 2010: 14:1012–1018 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Abstract: The therapeutic value of protocol biopsies (PBs) in renal transplant recipients remains unclear. We performed protocol biopsies in 57 children six months after transplantation. We increased the CNI dose in patients with borderline findings. In cases of Banff grade Ia, six prednisolone IV-pulses were given and the CNI dose was increased. CNI toxicity and polyomavirus nephropathy led to a reduction in the CNI dose. GFR was compared with a control group of 51 children with no PBs transplanted in the same period. Forty-two percent of PBs had no pathological changes, 24% IF/TA. Borderline findings were detected in 11%, Banff grade Ia in 15% (CNI), toxicity in 8%, and one case showed polyomavirus nephropathy. GFR after 1.5 and 2.5 yr was similar in both groups. GFR 3.5 yr after transplantation was significantly higher in the intervention group (57 ± 17 vs. 46 ± 20). Patients treated with low-dose CNI and everolimus had a significantly lower number of pathological findings in PBs. The performance of protocol biopsies followed by a standardized treatment algorithm led to better graft function 3.5 yr after transplantation. Prospective randomized studies to confirm our findings are needed.

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    • "More extensive experience is available in pediatric kidney transplantation [37–39], indicating that de novo use of everolimus with CsA offers effective immunosuppression and good renal function to three years aftertransplant [39]. Analyzing protocol biopsies at six months after renal transplantation, Kanzelmeyer et al. found a significantly lower number of pathological changes in patients treated with everolimus and low-dose CNI compared to standard CNI-based treatment [40]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The evidence base relating to the use of everolimus in heart transplantation has expanded considerably in recent years, providing clinically relevant information regarding its use in clinical practice. Unless there are special considerations to take into account, all de novo heart transplant patients can be regarded as potential candidates for immunosuppression with everolimus and reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor therapy. Caution about the use of everolimus immediately after transplantation should be exercised in certain patients with the risk of severe proteinuria, with poor wound healing, or with uncontrolled severe hyperlipidemia. Initiation of everolimus in the early phase aftertransplant is not advisable in patients with severe pretransplant end-organ dysfunction or in patients on a left ventricular assist device beforetransplant who are at high risk of infection or of wound healing complications. The most frequent reason for introducing everolimus in maintenance heart transplant patients is to support minimization or withdrawal of calcineurin inhibitor therapy, for example, due to impaired renal function or malignancy. Due to its potential to inhibit the progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy and to reduce cytomegalovirus infection, everolimus should be initiated as soon as possible after heart transplantation. Immediate and adequate reduction of CNI exposure is mandatory from the start of everolimus therapy.
    Journal of Transplantation 12/2013; DOI:10.1155/2013/683964
  • Pediatric Transplantation 05/2011; 15(5):539-40. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3046.2011.01510.x · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Protocol biopsies can detect subclinical rejection and early signs of calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: In a prospective study, protocol biopsies 3 and 12 months after transplant in transplanted children from two centers were studied. One center used cyclosporine (CsA)-based immunosuppression and the other center used tacrolimus. Patients were on CsA (n = 26, group 1) or on tacrolimus (n = 10, group 2). Patients received basiliximab induction, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Results: In patients on CsA, 26 kidney biopsies were performed during the 6 months after transplantation. Eighteen protocol biopsies were performed at 3 months post transplant; 13 were normal and five showed rejection (two borderline and three Banff II rejections). Eight biopsies were motivated by an increase of serum creatinine; four were normal and four revealed signs of acute rejection (two borderline and two Banff II). Twelve protocol biopsies were performed after 12 months; all were normal. For patients on tacrolimus (n = 10), ten protocol transplant biopsies were performed at 3 months post-transplant; none showed signs of rejection. No biopsy was performed for an increase of serum creatinine. There were no differences in patient age, number of human leukocyteantigen (HLA) incompatibilities, or other patient characteristics. Conclusions: Patients on tacrolimus had less acute rejection episodes detected on protocol biopsies 3 months after transplant. Protocol biopsies seem to play an important role in the detection of subclinical rejection in patients on CsA.
    Pediatric Nephrology 10/2012; 28(3). DOI:10.1007/s00467-012-2330-6 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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