Protocol biopsy-driven interventions after pediatric renal transplantation
ABSTRACT The therapeutic value of protocol biopsies (PBs) in renal transplant recipients remains unclear. We performed protocol biopsies in 57 children six months after transplantation. We increased the CNI dose in patients with borderline findings. In cases of Banff grade Ia, six prednisolone IV-pulses were given and the CNI dose was increased. CNI toxicity and polyomavirus nephropathy led to a reduction in the CNI dose. GFR was compared with a control group of 51 children with no PBs transplanted in the same period. Forty-two percent of PBs had no pathological changes, 24% IF/TA. Borderline findings were detected in 11%, Banff grade Ia in 15% (CNI), toxicity in 8%, and one case showed polyomavirus nephropathy. GFR after 1.5 and 2.5 yr was similar in both groups. GFR 3.5 yr after transplantation was significantly higher in the intervention group (57 ± 17 vs. 46 ± 20). Patients treated with low-dose CNI and everolimus had a significantly lower number of pathological findings in PBs. The performance of protocol biopsies followed by a standardized treatment algorithm led to better graft function 3.5 yr after transplantation. Prospective randomized studies to confirm our findings are needed.
- Pediatric Transplantation 05/2011; 15(5):539-40. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3046.2011.01510.x · 1.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Protocol biopsies can detect subclinical rejection and early signs of calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity. METHODS: In a prospective study, protocol biopsies 3 and 12 months after transplant in transplanted children from two centers were studied. One center used cyclosporine (CsA)-based immunosuppression and the other center used tacrolimus. Patients were on CsA (n = 26, group 1) or on tacrolimus (n = 10, group 2). Patients received basiliximab induction, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. RESULTS: In patients on CsA, 26 kidney biopsies were performed during the 6 months after transplantation. Eighteen protocol biopsies were performed at 3 months post transplant; 13 were normal and five showed rejection (two borderline and three Banff II rejections). Eight biopsies were motivated by an increase of serum creatinine; four were normal and four revealed signs of acute rejection (two borderline and two Banff II). Twelve protocol biopsies were performed after 12 months; all were normal. For patients on tacrolimus (n = 10), ten protocol transplant biopsies were performed at 3 months post-transplant; none showed signs of rejection. No biopsy was performed for an increase of serum creatinine. There were no differences in patient age, number of human leukocyteantigen (HLA) incompatibilities, or other patient characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Patients on tacrolimus had less acute rejection episodes detected on protocol biopsies 3 months after transplant. Protocol biopsies seem to play an important role in the detection of subclinical rejection in patients on CsA.Pediatric Nephrology 10/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00467-012-2330-6 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: No adequate statistical model has been established to estimate future glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children after kidney transplantation (KTX). Equations based on simple linear regression analysis as used in adults are not established in children. METHODS: An optimal prognostic model of GFR was generated for 63 children at 3-7 years after KTX. The main regression model for prediction of the log-transformed GFR (logGFR) included the mean monthly change of GFR in the period 3-24 months after KTX (∆GFR), the baseline GFR at 3 months (bGFR), and an intercept. Additionally, we investigated if the inclusion of cofactors leads to more precise predictions. The model was validated by leave-one-out cross-validation for years 3-7 after KTX. Prognostic quality was determined with the mean squared error (MSE) and mean absolute error (MAE). Results were compared with the simple linear regression model used in adults. RESULTS: The following statistical model was calculated for every prognosis year (i = 3, …, 7):[Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] Comparison of the new statistical model and the simple linear model for adults led to relevantly lower MSEs and MAEs for the new model (year 7: New model: MSE 0.1, MAE 0.3/adult model: MSE 1069, MAE 18). The benefit of inclusion of cofactors was not relevant. CONCLUSIONS: This statistical model is able to predict long-term graft function in children with very high precision.Pediatric Nephrology 11/2012; 28(3). DOI:10.1007/s00467-012-2346-y · 2.88 Impact Factor