Protocol biopsy-driven interventions after pediatric renal transplantation.
ABSTRACT The therapeutic value of protocol biopsies (PBs) in renal transplant recipients remains unclear. We performed protocol biopsies in 57 children six months after transplantation. We increased the CNI dose in patients with borderline findings. In cases of Banff grade Ia, six prednisolone IV-pulses were given and the CNI dose was increased. CNI toxicity and polyomavirus nephropathy led to a reduction in the CNI dose. GFR was compared with a control group of 51 children with no PBs transplanted in the same period. Forty-two percent of PBs had no pathological changes, 24% IF/TA. Borderline findings were detected in 11%, Banff grade Ia in 15% (CNI), toxicity in 8%, and one case showed polyomavirus nephropathy. GFR after 1.5 and 2.5 yr was similar in both groups. GFR 3.5 yr after transplantation was significantly higher in the intervention group (57 ± 17 vs. 46 ± 20). Patients treated with low-dose CNI and everolimus had a significantly lower number of pathological findings in PBs. The performance of protocol biopsies followed by a standardized treatment algorithm led to better graft function 3.5 yr after transplantation. Prospective randomized studies to confirm our findings are needed.
- SourceAvailable from: Uwe Schulz[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The evidence base relating to the use of everolimus in heart transplantation has expanded considerably in recent years, providing clinically relevant information regarding its use in clinical practice. Unless there are special considerations to take into account, all de novo heart transplant patients can be regarded as potential candidates for immunosuppression with everolimus and reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor therapy. Caution about the use of everolimus immediately after transplantation should be exercised in certain patients with the risk of severe proteinuria, with poor wound healing, or with uncontrolled severe hyperlipidemia. Initiation of everolimus in the early phase aftertransplant is not advisable in patients with severe pretransplant end-organ dysfunction or in patients on a left ventricular assist device beforetransplant who are at high risk of infection or of wound healing complications. The most frequent reason for introducing everolimus in maintenance heart transplant patients is to support minimization or withdrawal of calcineurin inhibitor therapy, for example, due to impaired renal function or malignancy. Due to its potential to inhibit the progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy and to reduce cytomegalovirus infection, everolimus should be initiated as soon as possible after heart transplantation. Immediate and adequate reduction of CNI exposure is mandatory from the start of everolimus therapy.Journal of Transplantation 12/2013;
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ABO-compatible as well as ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation are well established in the pediatric population. There are particularities in the histopathological evaluation of pediatric kidney transplant biopsies as for example the recurrence of certain diseases different from the adult population. Furthermore, the challenging transition of pediatric renal transplant recipients to adulthood is associated with an increased rate of non-adherence triggered rejection episodes. With modern immunosuppressive drugs, T-cell-mediated rejection of renal allografts is well controlled. In contrast, antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is increasingly recognized as one of the major reasons for allograft loss. However, the 2001 diagnostic Banff criteria for antibody-mediated rejection require further refinement, as the morphological spectrum of AMR expands while effective therapeutic strategies are lacking. For example, endarteritis, which traditionally has been attributed to T-cell-mediated rejection, has recently been shown to be part of the AMR spectrum in some cases. Many findings in transplant renal biopsies are not specific for a certain disease but need consideration of differential diagnoses. To use the term "chronic allograft nephropathy" as a diagnostic entity is no longer appropriate. Therefore, the precise identification of specific diseases is paramount in the assessment of transplant renal biopsies in order to enable tailored therapeutic management.Pediatric Nephrology 10/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: GPB are often performed in PRT to detect subclinical acute rejection or IF/TA. Reducing immunosuppression side effects without increasing rejection is a major concern in PRT. We report the results of GPB in children transplanted with a steroid-sparing protocol adapted to immunological risk. Children under 18 yr who received a renal transplantation between April 1, 2009 and May 31, 2012 were included. Immunosuppression consisted of an antibody induction therapy, tacrolimus, and MMF for all recipients. CSs were administered to children under five yr old, or receiving a second allograft. Twenty-eight children were included, 50% were CSs free. GPB were performed between three and six months. IF/TA was documented in seven biopsies; four of these seven children were CS free. One child, with CSs, presented a borderline rejection, and another child, steroid free, with significant inflammatory interstitial infiltrate, considered as a subclinical rejection, was treated with CSs pulses. The median eGFR was stable (74, 67.5, and 82 mL/min/1.73 m² at, respectively, seven days, three months, and one yr). Patient and graft survival were 100%. These results have to be confirmed in a larger cohort, with long-term follow-up.Pediatric Transplantation 12/2013; · 1.50 Impact Factor