The role of thyrotropin suppression in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Thyroid carcinoma is the commonest endocrine malignancy. The majority of these are differentiated thyroid carcinomas, which have a good overall prognosis. Treatment includes surgical excision, radio-iodine ablation and long-term thyrotropin suppression. The degree and length of suppression required, as well as the potential side-effect remain controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the degree of thyrotropin suppression achieved in a cohort of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. A retrospective review was performed of a prospectively maintained database. All patients with a diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma between January 1998 and January 2008 were identified. Demographic data, pathological stage and the treatment that the patient received was documented. TSH and free T4 levels were identified at specific time points post-operatively. Eighty-eight patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were identified. Seventy patients (79.5%) were female. The mean age was 55, with a range of 18 to 79 years. The majority of patients underwent a total thyroidectomy (n=79; 89.7%) and of those 29 (32.9%) had an associated modified neck dissection. Accurate follow-up was available on forty-nine patients. TSH and free T4 were measured at 3 and 6 months, as well as at 1 and 2 years post-operatively. Adequate TSH suppression was taken at a level < 0.1 mU/L. The majority of patients (69.5%) had achieved adequate TSH suppression at 2 years. However, 65% of these same patients had a high free T4 at 2 years indicating a degree of hyperthyroidism. This study has demonstrated that TSH suppression is being adequately achieved in the majority of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. However, this must be carefully weighed against the potential detrimental side-effects of long-term sub-clinical hyperthyroidism.
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ABSTRACT: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the publication of the American Thyroid Association's guidelines for the management of these disorders was published in 2006, a large amount of new information has become available, prompting a revision of the guidelines. Relevant articles through December 2008 were reviewed by the task force and categorized by topic and level of evidence according to a modified schema used by the United States Preventative Services Task Force. The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to optimal surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation, and suppression therapy using levothyroxine. Recommendations related to long-term management of differentiated thyroid cancer include those related to surveillance for recurrent disease using ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin as well as those related to management of recurrent and metastatic disease. We created evidence-based recommendations in response to our appointment as an independent task force by the American Thyroid Association to assist in the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. They represent, in our opinion, contemporary optimal care for patients with these disorders.Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 11/2009; 19(11):1167-214. DOI:10.1089/thy.2009.0110 · 3.84 Impact Factor
Endocrine Reviews 02/1981; 2(1):87-102. DOI:10.1210/edrv-2-1-87 · 19.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review the indications for and the proper monitoring of levothyroxine therapy in patients with thyroid disease. Relevant English language articles published from 1966 to 1992 were identified through a MEDLINE search and manual searches of both identified articles and selected endocrinology texts. Studies, case reports, and review articles that contained data on the pathophysiologic aspects of relevant thyroid disorders and on the pharmacologic aspects of, indications for, and administration of levothyroxine therapy. Data on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, complications, and treatment of thyroid disorders were analyzed with respect to patient selection, methods, diagnostic criteria, and conclusions. These data were used to develop a rational approach to the management of such patients. Levothyroxine is a reliable and commonly prescribed drug to treat thyroid disease, but excessive dosage may have adverse effects. In patients with hypothyroidism, levothyroxine is used as replacement therapy. For most patients, therapy can be initiated with a full replacement dosage (1.6 micrograms/kg body weight), which is usually 75 to 100 micrograms/day for women and 100 to 150 micrograms/d for men. The goal is to normalize the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration. Levothyroxine is also used to suppress the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration. A trial of thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy is indicated for most patients with benign solitary nonfunctioning thyroid nodules and for those with a history of thyroid cancer. Levothyroxine in non-thyroid-stimulating hormone-suppressive doses may also be indicated for patients with nontoxic multinodular goiter and for certain patients after lobectomy for benign thyroid nodules. With proper patient monitoring, levothyroxine replacement therapy should be effective, inexpensive, and free of complications. Recommendations for thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression with levothyroxine are based on risk-benefit considerations of the biologic characteristics of the thyroid disorder and the individual patient.Annals of internal medicine 10/1993; 119(6):492-502. DOI:10.1097/00019616-199403000-00019 · 16.10 Impact Factor