Inhibition of HIV-1 entry: multiple keys to close the door.

Georg-Speyer-Haus, Institute for Biomedical Research, Paul-Ehrlich-Str. 42-44, 60596 Frankfurt, Germany.
ChemMedChem (Impact Factor: 2.84). 11/2010; 5(11):1825-35. DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201000292
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Multipoint interactions between synthetic and natural polymers provide a promising platform for many topical applications, including therapeutic blockage of virus-specific targets. Docking may become a useful tool for modelling of such interactions. However, the rigid docking cannot be correctly applied to synthetic polymers with flexible chains. The application of flexible docking to these polymers as whole macromolecule ligands is also limited by too many possible conformations. We propose to solve this problem via stepwise flexible docking. Step 1 is docking of separate polymer components: (1) backbone units (BU), multi-repeated along the chain, and (2) side groups (SG) consisting of functionally active elements (SG ( F )) and bridges (SG ( B )) linking SG ( F ) with BU. At this step, probable binding sites locations and binding energies for the components are scored. Step 2 is docking of component-integrating models: [BU]( m ), SG = SG ( F ) -SG ( B ), BU-SG, BU-BU(SG)-BU, BU(SG)-[BU]( m ) -BU(SG), and [BU ( var )(SG ( var ))]( m ). Every modelling level yields new information, including how the linkage of various components influences on the ligand-target contacts positioning, orientation, and binding energy in step-by-step approximation to polymeric ligand motifs. Step 3 extrapolates the docking results to real-scale macromolecules. This approach has been demonstrated by studying the interactions between hetero-SG modified anionic polymers and the N-heptad repeat region tri-helix core of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp41, the key mediator of HIV-1 fusion during virus entry. The docking results are compared to real polymeric compounds, acting as HIV-1 entry inhibitors in vitro. This study clarifies the optimal macromolecular design for the viral fusion inhibition and drug resistance prevention.
    Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design 12/2012; · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evaluation of a comprehensive α-helix mimetic library for binding the gp41 NHR hydrophobic pocket recognizing an intramolecular CHR α-helix provided a detailed depiction of structural features required for binding and led to the discovery of small molecule inhibitors (K(i) 0.6-1.3 μM) that not only match or exceed the potency of those disclosed over the past decade, but that also exhibit effective activity in a cell-cell fusion assay (IC(50) 5-8 μM).
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    ABSTRACT: In previous works we reported the design, synthesis and in vitro evaluations of synthetic anionic polymers modified by alicyclic pendant groups (hydrophobic anchors), as a novel class of inhibitors of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into human cells. Recently, these synthetic polymers interactions with key mediator of HIV-1 entry-fusion, the tri-helix core of the first heptad repeat regions [HR1]3 of viral envelope protein gp41, were pre-studied via docking in terms of newly formulated algorithm for stepwise approximation from fragments of polymeric backbone and side-group models toward real polymeric chains. In the present article the docking results were verified under molecular dynamics (MD) modeling. In contrast with limited capabilities of the docking, the MD allowed of using much more large models of the polymeric ligands, considering flexibility of both ligand and target simultaneously. Among the synthesized polymers the dinorbornen anchors containing alternating copolymers of maleic acid were selected as the most representative ligands (possessing the top anti-HIV activity in vitro in correlation with the highest binding energy in the docking). To verify the probability of binding of the polymers with the [HR1]3 in the sites defined via docking, various starting positions of polymer chains were tried. The MD simulations confirmed the main docking-predicted priority for binding sites, and possibilities for axial and belting modes of the ligands-target interactions. Some newly MD-discovered aspects of the ligand's backbone and anchor units dynamic cooperation in binding the viral target clarify mechanisms of the synthetic polymers anti-HIV activity and drug resistance prevention.
    Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design 05/2014; · 3.17 Impact Factor