Malalignment and cartilage lesions in the patellofemoral joint treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation.
ABSTRACT The aim of our current study is to present the 12.6 years' follow-up results in patients with cartilage lesions of the patellofemoral joint, treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) with the use of periosteum.
Ninety-two patients having patella or trochlea lesion participated in this study. Lysholm and Tegner questionnaires were completed 12.6 years (SD 2.3 years) after the surgery. The patients were asked whether they feel better, worse or had not experienced any difference compared to previous years and whether they would undergo the operation again. Complications or subsequent surgeries were also assessed.
Median Tegner score was three, improved by one level compared with preoperative values (P = 0.02). Median Lysholm score was 70, improved by nine points (n.s.). Seventy-two percent of the patients were better or unchanged while 93% would undergo the operation again. Patients with no kissing lesions appeared to have a better prognosis. Patients with malalignment or instability that had undergone a realignment procedure had comparable outcomes to the patients that did not need any additional surgery. Realignment procedures increased the incidence of serious complications but they were associated with decreased incidence of periosteal hypertrophy. No association was found between the age of the patients at the time of the ACI or the size per lesion and any of the clinical outcomes.
ACI provides a satisfactory outcome for the treatment of cartilage lesions of the patellofemoral joint, even for the cases with concomitant patellar instability. It seems that correcting the coexisting background factors with realignment, stabilizing or unloading procedures, along with the treatment of cartilage lesions, is improving the clinical outcomes over time and decreases the incidence of periosteal hypertrophies although increasing the incidence of serious complications. Our study reveals the good results and the high level of patients' activities (as shown by Tegner score), were preserved 12.6 years after the implantation, in both isolated trochlea and patella lesions and also in multiple and in kissing lesions where an intervention could be considered as a salvage procedure.
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ABSTRACT: Focal chondral or osteochondral defects can be painful and disabling, have a poor capacity for repair, and may predispose patients for osteoarthritis. New surgical procedures that aim to reestablish hyaline cartilage have been introduced and the results seem promising. The purpose of this study is to provide reliable data on chondral and osteochondral defects in patients with symptomatic knees requiring arthroscopy and to calculate the prevalence of patients who might benefit from cartilage repair surgery. Prospective study. One thousand consecutive knee arthroscopies were included in this study. Immediately after each arthroscopy, the surgeon completed a questionnaire providing detailed information about the findings. Chondral and osteochondral lesions were classified in accordance with the system recommended by the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS). Chondral or osteochondral lesions (of any type) were found in 61% of the patients. Focal chondral or osteochondral defects were found in 19% of the patients. In these patients, 61% related their current knee problem to a previous trauma, and a concomitant meniscal or anterior cruciate ligament injury was found in 42% (n = 81) and 26% (n = 50), respectively. The mean chondral or osteochondral total defect area was 2.1 cm(2) (range, 0.5 to 12; standard deviation [SD], 1.5). The main focal chondral or osteochondral defect was found on the medial femoral condyle in 58%, patella in 11%, lateral tibia in 11%, lateral femoral condyle in 9%, trochlea in 6%, and medial tibia in 5%. It has been suggested that cartilage repair surgery may be most suitable in patients younger than 40 to 50 years old. A single, well-defined ICRS grade III or IV defect with an area of at least 1 cm(2) in a patient younger than 40, 45, or 50 years accounted for 5.3%, 6.1%, and 7.1% of all arthroscopies, respectively. Our study supports the contention that articular cartilage defects are common. It has the advantages of a prospective design and use of a new classification system recommended by the ICRS. This modern system focuses on objectively measurable parameters of the lesion's extent and not its surface appearance.Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 10/2002; 18(7):730-4. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Articular cartilage has a limited capacity for repair. In recent clinical and animal experiments, investigators have attempted to elicit the repair of defects of articular cartilage by injecting cultured autologous chondrocytes under a periosteal flap (a layer of periosteum). The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of cultured autologous chondrocytes on healing in an adult canine model with use of histomorphometric methods to assess the degree of repair. A total of forty-four four-millimeter-diameter circular defects were created down to the zone of calcified cartilage in the articular cartilage of the trochlear groove of the distal part of the femur in fourteen dogs. The morphology and characteristics of the original defects were defined in an additional six freshly created defects in three other dogs. Some residual noncalcified articular cartilage, occupying approximately 2 per cent of the total cross-sectional area of the defect, was sometimes left in the defect. The procedure sometimes damaged the calcified cartilage, resulting in occasional microfractures or larger fractures, thinning of the zone of calcified cartilage, or, rarely, small localized penetrations into subchondral bone. The forty-four defects were divided into three treatment groups. In one group, cultured autologous chondrocytes were implanted under a periosteal flap. In the second group, the defect was covered with a periosteal flap but no autologous chondrocytes were implanted. In the third group (the control group), the defects were left empty. The defects were analyzed after twelve or eighteen months of healing. Histomorphometric measurements were made of the percentage of the total area of the defect that became filled with repair tissue, the types of tissue that filled the defect, and the integration of the repair tissue with the adjacent cartilage at the sides of the defects and with the calcified cartilage at the base of the defect. In histological sections made through the center of the defects in the three groups, the area of the defect that filled with new repair tissue ranged from a mean total value of 36 to 76 per cent, with 10 to 23 per cent of the total area consisting of hyaline cartilage. Integration of the repair tissue with the adjacent cartilage at the edges of the defect ranged from 16 to 32 per cent in the three groups. Bonding between the repair tissue and the calcified cartilage at the base of the defect ranged from 41 to 89 per cent. With the numbers available, we could detect no significant difference among the three groups with regard to any of the parameters used to assess the quality of the repair. In the two groups in which a periosteal flap was sutured to the articular cartilage surrounding the defect, the articular cartilage showed degenerative changes that appeared to be related to that suturing.The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 11/1997; 79(10):1439-51. · 3.23 Impact Factor
- Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - British Volume 06/2004; 86(4):619; author reply 619-20. · 2.69 Impact Factor