Malalignment and cartilage lesions in the patellofemoral joint treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation.

Molecular Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy (Impact Factor: 2.68). 03/2011; 19(3):452-7. DOI: 10.1007/s00167-010-1267-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of our current study is to present the 12.6 years' follow-up results in patients with cartilage lesions of the patellofemoral joint, treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) with the use of periosteum.
Ninety-two patients having patella or trochlea lesion participated in this study. Lysholm and Tegner questionnaires were completed 12.6 years (SD 2.3 years) after the surgery. The patients were asked whether they feel better, worse or had not experienced any difference compared to previous years and whether they would undergo the operation again. Complications or subsequent surgeries were also assessed.
Median Tegner score was three, improved by one level compared with preoperative values (P = 0.02). Median Lysholm score was 70, improved by nine points (n.s.). Seventy-two percent of the patients were better or unchanged while 93% would undergo the operation again. Patients with no kissing lesions appeared to have a better prognosis. Patients with malalignment or instability that had undergone a realignment procedure had comparable outcomes to the patients that did not need any additional surgery. Realignment procedures increased the incidence of serious complications but they were associated with decreased incidence of periosteal hypertrophy. No association was found between the age of the patients at the time of the ACI or the size per lesion and any of the clinical outcomes.
ACI provides a satisfactory outcome for the treatment of cartilage lesions of the patellofemoral joint, even for the cases with concomitant patellar instability. It seems that correcting the coexisting background factors with realignment, stabilizing or unloading procedures, along with the treatment of cartilage lesions, is improving the clinical outcomes over time and decreases the incidence of periosteal hypertrophies although increasing the incidence of serious complications. Our study reveals the good results and the high level of patients' activities (as shown by Tegner score), were preserved 12.6 years after the implantation, in both isolated trochlea and patella lesions and also in multiple and in kissing lesions where an intervention could be considered as a salvage procedure.

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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Graft hypertrophy is a major complication in the treatment for localized cartilage defects with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) using periosteal flap and its further development, Novocart (a matrix-based ACI procedure). The aim of the present study is to investigate individual criteria for the development of graft hypertrophy by NOVOCART 3D implantation of the knee in the post-operative course of 2 years. METHODS: Forty-one consecutive patients with 44 isolated cartilage defects of the knee were treated with NOVOCART 3D implants. Individual criteria and defect-associated criteria were collected. Follow-up MRIs were performed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. The NOVOCART 3D implants were measured and classified. The modified MOCART Score was used to evaluate quality and integration of the NOVOCART 3D implants in MRI. RESULTS: Graft hypertrophy was observed in a total of 11 patients at all post-operative time points. We were able to show that NOVOCART 3D implantation of cartilage defects after acute trauma and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) led to a significantly increased proportion of graft hypertrophy. No other individual criteria (age, gender, BMI) or defect-associated criteria (concomitant surgery, second-line treatment, defect size, fixation technique) showed any influence on the development of graft hypertrophy. The modified MOCART Score results revealed a significant post-operative improvement within 2 years. CONCLUSION: The aetiology of cartilage defects appears to have a relevant influence for the development of graft hypertrophy. Patients, who were treated with NOVOCART 3D implants after an acute event (acute trauma or OCD), are especially at risk for developing a graft hypertrophy in the post-operative course of two years. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Case series, Level IV.
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