Malalignment and cartilage lesions in the patellofemoral joint treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation.
ABSTRACT The aim of our current study is to present the 12.6 years' follow-up results in patients with cartilage lesions of the patellofemoral joint, treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) with the use of periosteum.
Ninety-two patients having patella or trochlea lesion participated in this study. Lysholm and Tegner questionnaires were completed 12.6 years (SD 2.3 years) after the surgery. The patients were asked whether they feel better, worse or had not experienced any difference compared to previous years and whether they would undergo the operation again. Complications or subsequent surgeries were also assessed.
Median Tegner score was three, improved by one level compared with preoperative values (P = 0.02). Median Lysholm score was 70, improved by nine points (n.s.). Seventy-two percent of the patients were better or unchanged while 93% would undergo the operation again. Patients with no kissing lesions appeared to have a better prognosis. Patients with malalignment or instability that had undergone a realignment procedure had comparable outcomes to the patients that did not need any additional surgery. Realignment procedures increased the incidence of serious complications but they were associated with decreased incidence of periosteal hypertrophy. No association was found between the age of the patients at the time of the ACI or the size per lesion and any of the clinical outcomes.
ACI provides a satisfactory outcome for the treatment of cartilage lesions of the patellofemoral joint, even for the cases with concomitant patellar instability. It seems that correcting the coexisting background factors with realignment, stabilizing or unloading procedures, along with the treatment of cartilage lesions, is improving the clinical outcomes over time and decreases the incidence of periosteal hypertrophies although increasing the incidence of serious complications. Our study reveals the good results and the high level of patients' activities (as shown by Tegner score), were preserved 12.6 years after the implantation, in both isolated trochlea and patella lesions and also in multiple and in kissing lesions where an intervention could be considered as a salvage procedure.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Graft hypertrophy is a major complication in the treatment for localized cartilage defects with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) using periosteal flap and its further development, Novocart (a matrix-based ACI procedure). The aim of the present study is to investigate individual criteria for the development of graft hypertrophy by NOVOCART 3D implantation of the knee in the post-operative course of 2 years. METHODS: Forty-one consecutive patients with 44 isolated cartilage defects of the knee were treated with NOVOCART 3D implants. Individual criteria and defect-associated criteria were collected. Follow-up MRIs were performed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. The NOVOCART 3D implants were measured and classified. The modified MOCART Score was used to evaluate quality and integration of the NOVOCART 3D implants in MRI. RESULTS: Graft hypertrophy was observed in a total of 11 patients at all post-operative time points. We were able to show that NOVOCART 3D implantation of cartilage defects after acute trauma and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) led to a significantly increased proportion of graft hypertrophy. No other individual criteria (age, gender, BMI) or defect-associated criteria (concomitant surgery, second-line treatment, defect size, fixation technique) showed any influence on the development of graft hypertrophy. The modified MOCART Score results revealed a significant post-operative improvement within 2 years. CONCLUSION: The aetiology of cartilage defects appears to have a relevant influence for the development of graft hypertrophy. Patients, who were treated with NOVOCART 3D implants after an acute event (acute trauma or OCD), are especially at risk for developing a graft hypertrophy in the post-operative course of two years. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Case series, Level IV.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 03/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patellofemorale Knorpelschäden stellen keine ätiologische Entität dar. Komorbiditäten wie Malalignement oder Instabilität sind häufig. Die Ergebnisse patellofemoraler Knorpeloperationen sind variabel. Die aktuelle Studienlage lässt kein einheitliches Therapiekonzept erkennen: Tendenziell bessere Ergebnisse können verfahrensübergreifend durch eine Verbesserung der Biomechanik wie z.B. dem Tuberositastransfer erzielt werden. Bei patellofemoraler Instabilität tritt die Rekonstruktion des medialen patellofemoralen Ligaments (MPFL) verstärkt in den Interessenfokus. Mikrofrakturierung oder osteochondraler Zylindertransfer bzw. Mosaikplastik werden eher für kleinere Defekte empfohlen. Für Defektgrößen ab 4cm2 zeigen komparative Studien Vorteile für die autologe Chondrozytentransplantation (ACT). Bei unseren eigenen Patienten schnitten nach einer Matrix-ACT (MACI®) die isolierten Trochleadefekte vor den Patelladefekten und den bipolaren Läsionen im Lysholm-Score am besten ab. Während Trochleadefekte effektiv therapierbar sind, kann eine ACT bei bipolaren Läsionen nicht uneingeschränkt empfohlen werden. Die Nachbehandlung patellofemoraler Läsionen geht mit einem erhöhten Bedarf an Zeit und Ressourcen einher. Weitere klar definierte komparative randomisierte Studien mit größeren Fallzahlen sind für die Entwicklung eines differenziellen Therapiealgorithmus notwendig. Cartilage defects of the patellofemoral joint represent different entities. Results of patellofemoral cartilage repair are often variable. Concomitant pathologies, such as malalignment and instability are frequent. Currently no common treatment concept exists. Improvement of patellofemoral biomechanics, e.g. tubercle transfer, results in better outcome independent of the cartilage repair technique used. In patellofemoral instability reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has recently become a focus of interest. Microfracturing and osteochondral cylinder transfer/mosaicplasty are recommended for smaller defects, while comparative studies have shown advantages for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) in defects larger than 4cm2. In our study patients with patellofemoral scaffold ACI (MACI®), better Lysholm scores were seen with isolated trochlea defects rather than patella defects or bipolar lesions. While trochlea defects can be effectively addressed, treatment of bipolar patellofemoral defects by scaffold ACI cannot generally be recommended. Follow-up treatment of the patellofemoral joint is more time and cost-consuming than other defect localizations. For the development of therapeutic algorithms further well-defined large randomized studies are necessary. SchlüsselwörterPatellofemoralgelenk–Knorpelschaden–Realignement–Mikrofrakturierung–Autologe Chondrozytentransplantation (ACT) KeywordsPatellofemoral joint–Cartilage defect–Realignment–Microfracturing–Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI)Der Orthopäde 01/2011; 40(10):885-895. · 0.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Both autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and tibial tubercle transfer (TTT) have been used to treat chondral defects in the patellofemoral joint resulting in clinical improvement. Our study investigates the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) graft at 5-year follow-up to determine if it provides a durable treatment option in patients with an average age of 42 (standard deviation 11.6). Twenty-three patients were available for follow-up. Nine patients required realignment of the extensor mechanism with lateral release and TTT. The MRI magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) scoring system was used to assess the graft status. Clinical outcomes were assessed at these time periods. The mean weighted MOCART composite score improved from 2.87 at 3 months to 3.39 at 5 years, indicating an intact appearance in most grafts. Graft height measured >50 % of the adjacent native cartilage in 82 % of patients. Clinical improvement assessed by the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, SF-36 (PCS) and the 6-minute walk test was demonstrated between pre-operative scores and final 5-year follow-up. 91 % of patients would undergo MACI again. Correlation between MOCART and clinical scores were low in MACI to the patellofemoral joint. No significant difference was found in outcome between those that required realignment surgery compared with those that did not. Patellofemoral MACI provides a durable graft on MRI assessment at 5 years with resultant clinical improvement. Further work is needed to determine which defect locations may benefit most from this procedure. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 05/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor