Departamento de Bioquímica, Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana - 549-1 e 2, Instituto de Química, Centro de Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, Bloco A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21941-909, Brazil.
In countries with a strong agricultural base, such as Brazil, the generation of solid residues is very high. In some cases, these wastes present no utility due to their toxic and allergenic compounds, and so are an environmental concern. The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a promising candidate for biodiesel production. From the biodiesel production process developed in the Petrobras Research Center using castor bean seeds, a toxic and alkaline waste is produced. The use of agroindustrial wastes in solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a very interesting alternative for obtaining enzymes at low cost. Therefore, in this work, castor bean waste was used, without any treatment, as a culture medium for fungal growth and lipase production. The fungus Penicillium simplicissimum was able to grow and produce an enzyme in this waste. In order to maximize the enzyme production, two sequential designs-Plackett-Burman (variable screening) followed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD)-were carried out, attaining a considerable increase in lipase production, reaching an activity of 155.0 U/g after 96 h of fermentation. The use of experimental design strategy was efficient, leading to an increase of 340% in the lipase production. Zymography showed the presence of different lipases in the crude extract. The partial characterization of such extract showed the occurrence of two lipase pools with distinct characteristics of pH and temperature of action: one group with optimal action at pH 6.5 and 45°C and another one at pH 9.0 and 25°C. These results demonstrate how to add value to a toxic and worthless residue through the production of lipases with distinct characteristics. This pool of enzymes, produced through a low cost methodology, can be applied in different areas of biotechnology.
"Utilization of these agroresidues and byproducts of agroindustries as nutrient sources for microbial lipase production may reduce the final enzyme production cost, which is one of the major challenges affecting the large-scale production  . Some of the agricultural residues reported in the literature for lipase production include brans (wheat, rice, soybean, and barley), oil cakes (soy, olive, gingelly, and babassu), and bagasse (sugarcane)  . Lipases can be produced by animals, plants, and microorganisms . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plackett-Burman design was used to efficiently select important medium components affecting the lipase production by Aspergillus niger using shea butter cake as the main substrate. Out of the eleven medium components screened, six comprising of sucrose, (NH4)2SO4, Na2HPO4, MgSO4, Tween-80, and olive oil were found to contribute positively to the overall lipase production with a maximum production of 3.35 U/g. Influence of tween-80 on lipase production was investigated, and 1.0% (v/w) of tween-80 resulted in maximum lipase production of 6.10 U/g. Thus, the statistical approach employed in this study allows for rapid identification of important medium parameters affecting the lipase production, and further statistical optimization of medium and process parameters can be explored using response surface methodology.
"Interest has grown in recent years for biodiesel fuel based on animal fat or plant oils due to its relative compatibility with automotive diesel engines. There are many plant species whose derived oils have been used for biodiesel production, such as sunflower (Pessoa et al., 2010), peanut (Perez et al., 2010), castor bean (Godoy et al., 2011), physic nut (Kumar and Sharma, 2008) and soybean (Pessoa et al., 2010), among others. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the world's main protein and oil sources, representing about 30% of the plant oil used for food, feed and industry. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing efforts to preserve environmental resources have included the development of more efficient technologies to produce energy from renewable sources such as plant biomass, notably through biofuels and cellulosic residues. The relevance of the soybean industry is due mostly to oil and protein production which, although interdependent, results from coordinated gene expression in primary metabolism. Concerning biomass and biodiesel, a comprehensive analysis of gene regulation associated with cell wall components (as polysaccharides and lignin) and fatty acid metabolism may be very useful for finding new strategies in soybean breeding for the expanding bioenergy industry. Searching the Genosoja transcriptional database for enzymes and proteins directly involved in cell wall, lignin and fatty acid metabolism provides gene expression datasets with frequency distribution and specific regulation that is shared among several cultivars and organs, and also in response to different biotic/abiotic stress treatments. These results may be useful as a starting point to depict the Genosoja database regarding gene expression directly associated with potential applications of soybean biomass and/or residues for bioenergy-producing technologies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bioconversion of agricultural residues for lipase production as well as other value added products would hold a prominent position in future biotechnologies, mainly because of its eco friendliness and flexibility to both developing and developed countries. Several residues such as straw, bran, oil cakes, among others attract increasing attention as abundant and cheap renewable feedstock. Many researchers considered improvement of substrate composition, physical parameters (temperature, pH, moisture content and particle size), inoculum concentration, and substrate porosity to upgrade and valorize these bioproducts. Several species of fungi, yeast and bacteria have been used in utilizing the agricultural residues through fermentation techniques due to their ability to grow on particle surfaces as sources of carbon and energy, and produce important industrial enzymes including lipases. This review provides an overview of the present status on the utilization of renewable residues in the form of solid- and liquid-state and their characteristics for production of lipases using different microbial systems.
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