Adding value to a toxic residue from the biodiesel industry: production of two distinct pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum in castor bean waste

Departamento de Bioquímica, Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana - 549-1 e 2, Instituto de Química, Centro de Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, Bloco A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21941-909, Brazil.
Journal of Industrial Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.44). 08/2011; 38(8):945-53. DOI: 10.1007/s10295-010-0865-8
Source: PubMed


In countries with a strong agricultural base, such as Brazil, the generation of solid residues is very high. In some cases, these wastes present no utility due to their toxic and allergenic compounds, and so are an environmental concern. The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a promising candidate for biodiesel production. From the biodiesel production process developed in the Petrobras Research Center using castor bean seeds, a toxic and alkaline waste is produced. The use of agroindustrial wastes in solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a very interesting alternative for obtaining enzymes at low cost. Therefore, in this work, castor bean waste was used, without any treatment, as a culture medium for fungal growth and lipase production. The fungus Penicillium simplicissimum was able to grow and produce an enzyme in this waste. In order to maximize the enzyme production, two sequential designs-Plackett-Burman (variable screening) followed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD)-were carried out, attaining a considerable increase in lipase production, reaching an activity of 155.0 U/g after 96 h of fermentation. The use of experimental design strategy was efficient, leading to an increase of 340% in the lipase production. Zymography showed the presence of different lipases in the crude extract. The partial characterization of such extract showed the occurrence of two lipase pools with distinct characteristics of pH and temperature of action: one group with optimal action at pH 6.5 and 45°C and another one at pH 9.0 and 25°C. These results demonstrate how to add value to a toxic and worthless residue through the production of lipases with distinct characteristics. This pool of enzymes, produced through a low cost methodology, can be applied in different areas of biotechnology.

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    • "Utilization of these agroresidues and byproducts of agroindustries as nutrient sources for microbial lipase production may reduce the final enzyme production cost, which is one of the major challenges affecting the large-scale production [6] [7]. Some of the agricultural residues reported in the literature for lipase production include brans (wheat, rice, soybean, and barley), oil cakes (soy, olive, gingelly, and babassu), and bagasse (sugarcane) [8] [9]. Lipases can be produced by animals, plants, and microorganisms . "
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    • "Interest has grown in recent years for biodiesel fuel based on animal fat or plant oils due to its relative compatibility with automotive diesel engines. There are many plant species whose derived oils have been used for biodiesel production, such as sunflower (Pessoa et al., 2010), peanut (Perez et al., 2010), castor bean (Godoy et al., 2011), physic nut (Kumar and Sharma, 2008) and soybean (Pessoa et al., 2010), among others. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the world's main protein and oil sources, representing about 30% of the plant oil used for food, feed and industry. "
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    • "Wheat bran 33.03 U/g Contesini et al. (2009) 630 U/g Mahadik et al. (2002) Gingelly oil cake 363.6 U/g Kamini et al. (1998) Penicillium simplicissimum Castor bean waste 155.8 U/g Godoy et al. (2011) Babassu cake 20 U/g Gutarra et al. (2005) P. brevicompactum 98.78 U/g Silva et al. (2011) P. verrucosum Soybean bran 40 U/g Kempka et al. (2008) P. restrictum Babassu oil waste 27.8 U/g Palma et al. (2000) 30.3 U/g Gombert et al. (1999) P. citrinum Vegetable oil waste 6.738 U/ml Miranda et al. (1999) "
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