Cystatin C is not a better estimator of GFR than plasma creatinine in the general population.
ABSTRACT Accurate measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is complicated and costly; therefore, GFR is commonly estimated by assessing creatinine or cystatin C concentrations. Because estimates based on cystatin C predict cardiovascular disease better than creatinine, these estimates have been hypothesized to be superior to those based on creatinine, when the GFR is near the normal range. To test this, we measured GFR by iohexol clearance in a representative sample of middle-aged (50-62 years) individuals in the general population, excluding those with coronary heart or kidney disease, stroke or diabetes mellitus. Bias, precision (median and interquartile range of estimated minus measured GFR (mGFR)), and accuracy (percentage of estimates within 30% of mGFR) of published cystatin C and creatinine-based GFR equations were compared in a total of 1621 patients. The cystatin C-based equation with the highest accuracy (94%) had a bias of 3.5 and precision of 18 ml/min per 1.73 m², whereas the most accurate (95%) creatinine-based equation had a bias of 2.9 and precision of 15 ml/min per 1.73 m² The best equation, based on both cystatin C and creatinine, had a bias of 7.6 ml/min per 1.73 m², precision of 15 ml/min per 1.73 m², and accuracy of 92%. Thus, estimates of GFR based on cystatin C were not superior to those based on creatinine in the general population. Hence, the better prediction of cardiovascular disease by cystatin C than creatinine measurements, found by others, may be due to factors other than GFR.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to compare the most commonly used GFR markers for clearance measurements, 51Cr-EDTA and iohexol, using two different methods for iohexol analysis, HPLC and X-ray fluorescence, referring both to the multiple-sample and single-sample calculations, using 51Cr-EDTA as the reference method. Forty-nine patients with an estimated GFR >40 ml/min were included. 51Cr-EDTA and iohexol were injected simultaneously and blood samples were taken 150, 195 and 240 min after injection of the respective marker. The multiple-point clearances, determined from HPLC and X-ray fluorescence, compared to 51Cr-EDTA correlated highly (r=0.92 and 0.95 respectively). The results from single-point clearance comparison, iohexol measured by HPLC vs 51Cr-EDTA, yielded a correlation of r=0.91, while single-point clearance from iohexol, analysed by X-ray fluorescence, obtained a correlation of 0.93 and an intercept statistically different from origo. Iohexol and 51Cr-EDTA are comparable as GFR markers for multiple-point clearance measurements. The single-sample method for GFR >40 ml/min can be used with a high accuracy. The precision and accuracy of X-ray fluorescence analysis of low concentrations of iohexol were less than those of HPLC. Care should therefore be taken when using X-ray fluorescence that the injected dose of iohexol should result in a plasma concentration level of iodine of at least 0.06 mg/ml at the time of blood sampling.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 06/1998; 13(5):1176-82. · 3.37 Impact Factor
- Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2009; 20(10):2088-90. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Decreased kidney function, determined using a serum creatinine-based estimation of GFR, is associated with a higher risk for mortality from cardiovascular disease. Equations incorporating cystatin C improve the estimation of GFR, but whether this improves the prediction of risk for mortality is unknown. We measured cystatin C on 6942 adult participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File, including all participants who had high serum creatinine (>1.2 mg/dl for men; >1.0 mg/dl for women) or were older than 60 yr and 25% random sample of participants who were younger than 60 yr. We estimated GFR using equations that included standardized serum creatinine, cystatin C, or both. Participant data were linked to the National Death Index. A total of 1573 (22.7%) deaths (713 deaths from cardiovascular disease) occurred during a median of 8 yr. Lower estimated GFR based on cystatin C was strongly associated with higher risk for overall and cardiovascular mortality across the range of normal to moderately decreased estimated GFR. Creatinine-based estimates of GFR resulted in weaker associations, with the association between estimated GFR and all-cause mortality reversed at higher levels of estimated GFR. An equation using both creatinine and cystatin C (in addition to age, race, and gender) resulted in weaker associations than equations using only cystatin C (with or without age, race, and gender). In conclusion, despite better performance in terms of estimating GFR, equations based on both cystatin C and creatinine do not predict mortality as well as equations based on cystatin C alone.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2009; 20(10):2214-22. · 8.99 Impact Factor