SIRT1 Is a Novel Regulator of Key Pathways of Human Labor
ABSTRACT Human sirtuin (SIRT) 1 and SIRT2, which possess nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase activity, exhibit anti-inflammatory actions. However, there are no data available on SIRT1 and SIRT2 expression and regulation in human intrauterine tissues. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the localization and expression of SIRT1 and SIRT2 in 1) placenta and fetal membranes before and after term spontaneous labor onset, 2) prelabor fetal membranes from the supracervical site (SCS) and a distal site (DS), and 3) in response to proinflammatory stimuli. Further, the effect of SIRT activation using resveratrol and SRT1720 on prolabor mediators was also assessed. SIRT1 and SIRT2 were localized in the syncytiotrophoblast layer and the cytotrophoblasts of the placenta, amnion epithelium, trophoblast layer of the chorion, and decidual cells. Additionally, SIRT2 was found within the endothelial walls of placental vessels. SIRT2, but not SIRT1, staining was significantly lower in amnion and chorion obtained from the SCS compared to a DS. On the other hand, SIRT1, but not SIRT2, gene and/or protein expression was significantly lower in placenta, amnion, and chorion obtained after labor compared to prelabor. SIRT1 expression, but not SIRT2, was down-regulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL1B. The SIRT1 activators resveratrol and SRT1720 significantly decreased LPS-induced TNF, IL6, and IL8 gene expression and release and PTGS2 mRNA expression and resultant prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and PGF(2α) release from human gestational tissues. In conclusion, SIRT1 possesses anti-inflammatory actions and thus may play a role in regulating pregnancy and parturition.
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ABSTRACT: Preterm birth remains the largest single cause of neonatal death and morbidity. Infection and/or inflammation are strongly associated with preterm delivery. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is known to be a crucial mediator of inflammation homeostasis. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of spontaneous human labour in foetal membranes and myometrium on GSK3α/β expression, and the effect of inhibition of GSK3α/β on pro-labour mediators in foetal membranes and myometrium stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Term and preterm labour in foetal membranes was associated with significantly decreased serine phosphorylated GSK3α and β expression, and thus increased GSK3 activity. There was no effect of term labour on serine phosphorylated GSK3β expression in myometrium. The specific GSK3α/β inhibitor CHIR99021 significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide (ligand to TLR4)-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and release; COX2 gene expression and prostaglandin release; and MMP9 gene expression and pro MMP9 release in foetal membranes and/or myometrium. CHIR99021 also decreased FSL1 (TLR2 ligand) and flagellin (TLR5 ligand)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and release and COX2 mRNA expression and prostaglandin release. GSK3β siRNA knockdown in primary myometrial cells was associated with a significant decrease in IL1β and TNFα-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandin release. In conclusion, GSK3α/β activity is increased in foetal membranes after term and preterm labour. Pharmacological blockade of the kinase GSK3 markedly reduced pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators in human foetal membranes and myometrium, providing a possible therapeutics for the management of preterm labour. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.Reproduction (Cambridge, England) 02/2015; 149(2):189-202. DOI:10.1530/REP-14-0493 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infection and/or inflammation are most commonly associated with preterm birth. Studies have shown that antimicrobial peptides can modulate the inflammatory response in non-gestational tissues; the human cathelicidin hCAP18 (and its active component LL-37) has such anti-microbial and immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human labour on hCAP18 expression in foetal membranes and myometrium, and to determine the effect of the synthetic LL-37 peptide on pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators in foetal membranes and myometrium. The localisation and expression of hCAP18 in non-labouring and labouring tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, respectively. Tissue explants were used to determine the effect of LL-37 on pro-labour mediators. hCAP18 was localised to the amnion epithelium, cytotrophoblasts and decidua in the foetal membranes, and in the longitudinal and transverse muscle fibres of the myometrium. Additional hCAP18 staining was present in leukocytes. In foetal membranes and myometrium, human labour was associated with significantly higher hCAP18 protein expression. Treatment of foetal membranes and myometrium with LL-37 significantly induced the expression and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, and the chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1. LL-37 also induced expression of MMP-9 mRNA and pro MMP-9 expression in foetal membranes. Co-treatment with BAY 11-7082 was associated with a decrease in LL-37-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Moreover, inhibition of MyD88 in myometrial cells decreased LL-37-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and release. LL-37 also significantly increased NF-κB transcriptional activity. In conclusion, hCAP18/LL-37 induces pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators, via the MyD88/NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Journal of Reproductive Immunology 11/2014; 107. DOI:10.1016/j.jri.2014.10.002 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spontaneous preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death and of neurological disabilities in survivors. A significant proportion of spontaneous preterm births are associated with infection. Infection activates inflammation which induces a cascade of events that leads to myometrial contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. In non-gestational tissues, the citrus flavone nobiletin has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, in this study, we sought to determine the effect of nobiletin on pro-inflammatory mediators in human fetal membranes and myometrium. Human fetal membranes and myometrium were treated with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the absence or presence of nobiletin. In addition, the effect of nobiletin in fetal membranes taken from spontaneous preterm deliveries with and without infection (i.e. histological chorioamnionitis) was also examined. In human fetal membranes and myometrium, nobiletin significantly decreased LPS-stimulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8) and MMP-9 expression and pro-MMP-9 secretion. Additionally, nobiletin significantly decreased COX-2 expression and subsequent prostaglandin (PG) E2 production. Notably, nobiletin was also able to reduce the expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and MMP-9 in fetal membranes taken from women after spontaneous preterm birth. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that nobiletin can reduce infection-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in human fetal membranes and myometrium. These in vitro studies further support the increasing volume and quality of evidence that high fruit and vegetable intake in pregnancy is associated with a decreased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108390. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108390 · 3.53 Impact Factor