Long-term Absolute Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3 or Worse Following Human Papillomavirus Infection: Role of Persistence

Department of Viruses, Hormones and Cancer, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Strandboulevarden 49, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute (Impact Factor: 12.58). 10/2010; 102(19):1478-88. DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djq356
Source: PubMed


Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. It has been suggested that information about high-risk HPV type-specific infection might make cervical cancer screening more effective. Persistent HPV infection could also be a useful screening marker. We estimated the long-term risk of high-grade CIN after one-time detection of high-risk HPV DNA and after persistent infection with individual high-risk HPV types.
A cohort of 8656 women from the general population of Denmark was examined twice, 2 years apart (first study examination: May 15, 1991, to January 31, 1993; second study examination: October 1, 1993, to January 31, 1995). The women underwent a gynecological examination and cervical cytology and had swabs taken for HPV DNA analysis by the Hybrid Capture 2 and line probe assays. The women were followed up through the nationwide Danish Pathology Data Bank for cervical neoplasia for up to 13.4 years. The absolute risk of developing cervical lesions before a given time was estimated as a function of time.
For women with normal cytological findings who were concurrently HPV16 DNA positive at the second examination, the estimated probability of developing CIN grade 3 (CIN3) or worse within 12 years of follow-up was 26.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1% to 31.8%). The corresponding risks among those infected with HPV18 was 19.1% (95% CI = 10.4% to 27.3%), with HPV31 was 14.3% (95% CI = 9.1% to 19.4%), and with HPV33 was 14.9% (95% CI = 7.9% to 21.1%). The absolute risk of CIN3 or worse after infection with high-risk HPV types other than HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, or HPV33 was 6.0% (95% CI = 3.8% to 8.3%). The estimated absolute risk for CIN3 or cancer within 12 years of the second examination among women who were HPV16 DNA positive at both examinations was 47.4% (95% CI = 34.9% to 57.5%); by contrast, the risk of CIN3 or worse following a negative Hybrid Capture 2 test was 3.0% (95% CI = 2.5% to 3.5%).
HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, and HPV33 infection and especially HPV16 persistence were associated with high absolute risks for progression to high-grade cervical lesions. The results indicate the potential value of genotyping in cervical cancer screening. Given that HPV DNA-negative women retained their low risk of CIN3 or worse for many years, frequent screening of these women may be unnecessary.


Available from: Thomas Iftner, Jan 22, 2014
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    • "Posttreatment hrHPV testing at 6-month follow-up has been clearly demonstrated to have higher sensitivity than cytology and comparable specificity [8] [11] [12], while a potential value of genotyping has been suggested [13]. Indeed, HPV 16 is known to have a higher oncogenic capacity than the other known high-risk types [29], with implications for natural history (faster development and higher persistence rate) and management [30]. The distribution over time of the residual/recurrent highgrade lesions showed that most of them developed within 2 years, as already reported in the literature [4], but disclosed some differences between CIN2 and CIN3. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. The aim of this retrospective observational study of women treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was to assess the long-term risk of residual/recurrent high-grade CIN. Materials and Methods. We evaluated 760 women treated by loop electrosurgical excision procedure (684) or conization (76) between 2000 and 2009, and followed up to June 30, 2014 (median follow-up 6.7 years, range 4-14). Visits every 6 months for the first year after treatment and yearly for up to the following 10 years included cytology, colposcopy when indicated, and HPV testing (search and typing). Results. CIN2+ or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (VAIN2+) was detected in 67 cases (8.8%), 39 at first follow-up and 28 after one/more negative visits. The risk of CIN2+ was higher in case of positive margins (odds ratio (OR) 8.04, 95% CI 4.31-15.0), type 3 transformation zone (OR for CIN3 27.7, 95% CI 2.07-36.9), CIN3+ excision (OR 6.02, 95% CI 1.73-20.9), and positive high-risk HPV test at first follow-up (OR for HPV16: 20.6, 95% CI 6.8-62.6; OR for other hrHPV types: 18.3, 95% CI 5.9-57.0). Conclusion. Residual/recurrent high-grade CIN occurred in <9% cases, and the risk was associated with transformation zone type, lesion grade, margins status, and hrHPV test result at 6-12 months of follow-up.
    07/2015; 2015:1-8. DOI:10.1155/2015/984528
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    • "and approximately 40 types of HPV have been reported to infect the genital tract (Bosch et al., 2002; Munoz et al., 2003). Twelve highrisk HPV types have a causal link with cervical cancer (Bouvard et al., 2009), in particular, HPV 16 and HPV 18 are associated strongly with a higher risk for the progression of cervical cancer (Kjaer et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Regional differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and the presence of mixed HPV infections may affect adversely the efficacy of the HPV vaccine. Therefore, a simple and high-throughput HPV genotyping system is required. Recently, a novel HPV genotyping kit (the Mebgen™ HPV kit) was developed. This kit uses multiplex PCR and Luminex xMAP™ technology to detect 13 types of high-risk HPVs and an internal control in a 96-well format. In the present study, the analytical performance of the kit was examined using HPV plasmid DNA. All 13 types of HPVs were detected with a minimum detection sensitivity of 250 copies/test, and highly specific signals were observed. HPV 16 plasmid was detected in samples containing mixtures with other HPV-type plasmids in ratios ranging from 1:1 to 1:1,000. No cross reactivity was observed with DNA from 27 types of other infectious microbes. A clinical evaluation was carried out using cervical samples from 356 patients with persistent abnormal smears diagnosed at mass public health screenings for cervical cancer. The samples were preserved in Tacas™ medium until analysis. HPV was detected in 162 (45.5%) samples including 110 (67.9%) with single infections and 52 (32.1%) with multiple infections. The type distribution of the 13 high-risk HPVs was as follows: 28.4% HPV 16, 11.7% HPV 18, 6.8% HPV 31, 3.1% HPV 33, 3.7% HPV 35, 9.3% HPV 39, 1.9% HPV 45, 8.6% HPV 51, 37.0% HPV 52, 9.3% HPV 56, 16.7% HPV 58, 3.7% HPV 59, and 1.9% HPV 68. To evaluate sample stability over time, changes in the detection of HPV DNA derived from HeLa and SiHa cells were measured in 3 types of liquid-based cytology media. HPV DNA was detected in Tacas and Thinprep™ samples after storage at 4°C or 30°C for 4 weeks and within 1 week of collection in Surepath™ samples. These results suggest that this newly developed HPV genotyping kit is suitable for use in both clinical applications and large-scale epidemiological studies.
    Journal of virological methods 04/2014; 204. DOI:10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.04.010 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    • "Among these types, HPV 16 and 18 infections, followed by HPV 31 and 45 are found in more than 80% of cervical cancer specimens [6-9]. The prevalence of alpha 7-HPV types is lower than that of alpha-9 types, but HPV types from both species are associated with stable and persistent infections [10]. In healthy women, the prevalence of hr-HPV follows a bimodal distribution, peaking in women aged 20 to 24 years and in those aged 50 to 54; multiple-type (MT) HPV infection is more prevalent in women 30 years old or younger [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer ranks third in prevalence and fourth as cause of death in women worldwide. In Brazil, 17,540 women were diagnosed in 2012 with the disease. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types is a necessary condition for the development of pre-invasive and invasive cervical neoplasia. Currently, over 100 HPV types have been identified, but HPV16 and 18 are recognized as the mayor culprits in cervical carcinogenesis. Our objective was to assess the relationships between single- (ST) and multiple-type (MT) HPV infections with patients' age and lesion pathological status. 328 patients with either squamous or glandular intraepithelial or invasive cervical lesion were selected. All subjects were tested for HPV genotypes with reverse hybridization for 21 high- (hr-HPV) and 16 low-risk (lr-HPV) probes. Prevalence of ST and MT HPV infections was compared across histological types and age strata. 287 (87%) women had at least one HPV type detected and 149 (52%) had MT infections. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV16, present in 142 cases (49% of all HPV-positive cases), followed by HPV58, 52, 31, 35 and 33. HPV18, in single or multiple infections, occurred in 23 cases (8% of hr-HPV cases). Almost all glandular lesions were associated with HPV16 and 18 alone. Multiple infections were significantly more prevalent in squamous than in glandular lesion for HPV16 and 18 (P = 0.04 and 0.03 respectively). The prevalence of MT infections followed a bimodal distribution; peaking in women younger 29 years and in those aged 50 to 59. Our data indicate that prevention strategies for pre-invasive and invasive squamous lesions should be focused on HPV16 and a few alpha-9 HPV types. It is clear to us that in young women, prophylaxis must cover a large amalgam of HPV types beyond classic HPV16 and 18.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 04/2014; 14(1):214. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-214 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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