Article

Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine and their association with depressive symptoms among U.S. adults.

National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health/Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.
Psychosomatic Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.09). 11/2010; 72(9):862-73. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181f61863
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine, in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, the associations of serum folate, vitamin B-12, and total homocysteine (tHcy) levels with depressive symptoms. Several nutritional and physiological factors have been linked to depression in adults, including low folate and vitamin B-12 and elevated tHcy levels.
Data on U.S. adults (age, 20-85 years; n = 2524) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the period 2005 to 2006 were used. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), and elevated symptoms were defined as a PHQ total score of ≥10. Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy were mainly expressed as tertiles. Multiple ordinary least square (OLS), logistic, and zero-inflated Poisson regression models were conducted in the main analysis.
Overall, mean PHQ score was significantly higher among women compared with men. Elevated depressive symptoms (PHQ score of ≥10) were inversely associated with folate status, particularly among women (fully adjusted odds ratio [tertiles T(3) versus T(1)] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.86), but not significantly related to tHcy or vitamin B-12. No interaction was noted between the three exposures in affecting depressive symptoms. In older adults (≥50 years) and both sexes combined, tHcy was positively associated with elevated depressive symptoms (fully adjusted odds ratio [tertiles T(2) versus T(1)] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-9.03), although no significant dose-response relationship was found.
Future interventions to improve mental health outcomes among U.S. adults should take into account dietary and other factors that would increase levels of serum folate.

Full-text

Available from: May A Beydoun, May 29, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
117 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence from observational studies suggests that there is an association among depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and folate; however, this association has yet to be examined in childhood and adolescent depression. The objective was to determine whether the BDNF, PUFAs, and folate in serum differ between first-episode childhood and adolescent depressed patients and healthy controls. We measured the serum levels of BDNF, PUFAs, and folate of cases admitted to the hospital for depression (n=24) and compared it to that of controls (n=26). Subjects and their parents were informed about the nature and the purpose of this study, and a consent form was signed by parents. The ethics committee of Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine approved the study protocol. There were significant differences in the docosahexanoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA), and folate levels between cases and controls. Serum levels of DHA, AA, and folate levels in the patients group were statistically lower than those in the control group, while serum levels of BDNF were not different between cases and controls. These results are in line with findings of previous studies involving adult and elderly subjects, demonstrating lower levels of PUFAs and folate in patients with depression than healthy controls. However, further studies using larger sample size are warranted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Psychiatry Research 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.11.018 · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In almost all tissues, including the brain, folates are required for one-carbon transfer reactions, which are essential for the synthesis of DNA and RNA nucleotides, the metabolism of amino acids and the occurrence of methylation reactions. The aim of this paper is to review the impact of folate status on the risk of development of neuropsychiatric disorders in older individuals. The prevalence of folate deficiency is high among individuals aged ≥ 65 years mainly due to reduced dietary intake and intestinal malabsorption. Population-based studies have demonstrated that a low folate status is associated with mild cognitive impairment, dementia (particularly Alzheimer's disease) and depression in healthy and neuropsychiatric diseased older individuals. The proposed mechanisms underlying that association include hyperhomocysteinemia, lower methylation reactions and tetrahydrobiopterin levels, and excessive misincorporation of uracil into DNA. However, currently, there is no consistent evidence demonstrating that folic acid supplementation improves cognitive function or slows cognitive decline in healthy or cognitively impaired older individuals. In conclusion, folate deficiency seems to be an important contributor for the onset and progression of neuropsychiatric diseases in the geriatric population but additional studies are needed in order to increase the knowledge of this promising, but still largely unexplored, area of research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Ageing research reviews 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2015.04.005 · 7.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Homocysteine-lowering nutrients may have preventive/ameliorative roles in depression. Aims To test whether long-term B-vitamin/folate supplementation reduces depression risk. Method Participants were 4331 women (mean age 63.6 years), without prior depression, from the Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study - a randomised controlled trial of cardiovascular disease prevention among 5442 women. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a combination of folic acid (2.5 mg/d), vitamin B6 (50 mg/d) and vitamin B12 (1 mg/d) or a matching placebo. Average treatment duration was 7 years. The outcome was incident depression, defined as self-reported physician/clinician-diagnosed depression or clinically significant depressive symptoms. Results There were 524 incident cases. There was no difference between active v. placebo groups in depression risk (adjusted relative risk 1.02, 95% CI 0.86-1.21, P = 0.81), despite significant homocysteine level reduction. Conclusions Long-term, high-dose, daily supplementation with folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 did not reduce overall depression risk in mid-life and older women. Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 01/2015; DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.114.148361 · 7.34 Impact Factor