Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine and their association with depressive symptoms among U.S. adults.

National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health/Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.
Psychosomatic Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.09). 11/2010; 72(9):862-73. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181f61863
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine, in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, the associations of serum folate, vitamin B-12, and total homocysteine (tHcy) levels with depressive symptoms. Several nutritional and physiological factors have been linked to depression in adults, including low folate and vitamin B-12 and elevated tHcy levels.
Data on U.S. adults (age, 20-85 years; n = 2524) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the period 2005 to 2006 were used. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), and elevated symptoms were defined as a PHQ total score of ≥10. Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy were mainly expressed as tertiles. Multiple ordinary least square (OLS), logistic, and zero-inflated Poisson regression models were conducted in the main analysis.
Overall, mean PHQ score was significantly higher among women compared with men. Elevated depressive symptoms (PHQ score of ≥10) were inversely associated with folate status, particularly among women (fully adjusted odds ratio [tertiles T(3) versus T(1)] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.86), but not significantly related to tHcy or vitamin B-12. No interaction was noted between the three exposures in affecting depressive symptoms. In older adults (≥50 years) and both sexes combined, tHcy was positively associated with elevated depressive symptoms (fully adjusted odds ratio [tertiles T(2) versus T(1)] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-9.03), although no significant dose-response relationship was found.
Future interventions to improve mental health outcomes among U.S. adults should take into account dietary and other factors that would increase levels of serum folate.

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    Journal of Nutrition 06/2014; DOI:10.3945/jn.114.196717 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The associations between nutritional biomarkers and measures of sleep quantity and quality remain unclear. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2005-2006 were used. We selected 2,459 adults aged 20-85, with complete data on key variables. Five sleep measures were constructed as primary outcomes: (A) Sleep duration; (B) Sleep disorder; (C) Three factors obtained from factor analysis of 15 items and labeled as "Poor sleep-related daytime dysfunction'' (Factor 1), "Sleepiness'' (Factor 2) and "Sleep disturbance'' (Factor 3). Main exposures were serum concentrations of key nutrients, namely retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene), folate, vitamin B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy), vitamin C, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) and vitamin E. Main analyses consisted of multiple linear, logistic and multinomial logit models. Results: Among key findings, independent inverse associations were found between serum vitamin B-12 and sleep duration, 25(OH) D and sleepiness (as well as insomnia), and between folate and sleep disturbance. Serum total carotenoids concentration was linked to higher odds of short sleep duration (i.e. 5-6 h per night) compared to normal sleep duration (7-8 h per night). Conclusions: A few of the selected serum nutritional biomarkers were associated with sleep quantity and quality. Longitudinal studies are needed to ascertain temporality and assess putative causal relationships.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103490. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103490 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence from observational studies suggests that there is an association among depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and folate; however, this association has yet to be examined in childhood and adolescent depression. The objective was to determine whether the BDNF, PUFAs, and folate in serum differ between first-episode childhood and adolescent depressed patients and healthy controls. We measured the serum levels of BDNF, PUFAs, and folate of cases admitted to the hospital for depression (n=24) and compared it to that of controls (n=26). Subjects and their parents were informed about the nature and the purpose of this study, and a consent form was signed by parents. The ethics committee of Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine approved the study protocol. There were significant differences in the docosahexanoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA), and folate levels between cases and controls. Serum levels of DHA, AA, and folate levels in the patients group were statistically lower than those in the control group, while serum levels of BDNF were not different between cases and controls. These results are in line with findings of previous studies involving adult and elderly subjects, demonstrating lower levels of PUFAs and folate in patients with depression than healthy controls. However, further studies using larger sample size are warranted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Psychiatry Research 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.11.018 · 2.68 Impact Factor


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May 21, 2014