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The differential effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers with respect to foot ulcer and limb amputation in those with diabetes

Department of Dermatology and Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
Wound Repair and Regeneration (Impact Factor: 2.77). 09/2010; 18(5):445-51. DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-475X.2010.00624.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) or lower extremity amputation (LEA) are complications of diabetes. In those with diabetes, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are commonly used to prevent the progression of kidney disease. Recent studies have indicated that angiotensin may affect angiogenesis and wound repair. Our goal was to evaluate in those with diabetes the likelihood of developing a DFU or LEA among users of ACEi or ARB using a retrospective cohort design of general practices in the United Kingdom. We studied 40,342 individuals at least 35 years of age with diabetes who were first prescribed ACEi or ARB between 1995 and 2006. A total of 35,153 individuals were treated with ACEi, 12,437 individuals with ARB, and 7,310 both. The hazard ratio for DFU was 0.50 (95% confidence intervals: 0.43, 0.59), showing an increased risk of DFU for those using ACEi vs. ARB. The hazard ratio for LEA was 0.72 (0.48, 1.01). However, among those with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease the hazard ratio was 0.45 (0.22, 0.91) for the new onset of a LEA. In conclusion, among those with diabetes, exposure to ACEi as compared with ARB increases the risk of developing a DFU or LEA.

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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers have beneficial effects on neurovascular complications in diabetes and in organ's protection against ischemic episodes. The present study examines whether the AT1R blocker candesartan (1) has a beneficial effect on diabetes-induced alteration of pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV, a cutaneous physiological neurovascular mechanism which could delay the occurrence of tissue ischemia), and (2) could be protective against skin pressure ulcer formation. Male Swiss mice aged 5-6 weeks were randomly assigned to four experimental groups. In two groups, diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg.kg(-1)). After 6 weeks, control and STZ mice received either no treatment or candesartan (1 mg/kg-daily in drinking water) during 2 weeks. At the end of treatment (8 weeks of diabetes duration), C-fiber mediated nociception threshold, endothelium-dependent vasodilation and PIV were assessed. Pressure ulcers (PUs) were then induced by pinching the dorsal skin between two magnetic plates for three hours. Skin ulcer area development was assessed during three days, and histological examination of the depth of the skin lesion was performed at day three. After 8 weeks of diabetes, the skin neurovascular functions (C-fiber nociception, endothelium-dependent vasodilation and PIV) were markedly altered in STZ-treated mice, but were fully restored by treatment with candesartan. Whereas in diabetes mice exposure of the skin to pressure induced wide and deep necrotic lesions, treatment with candersartan restored their ability to resist to pressure-induced ulceration as efficiently as the control mice. Candesartan decreases the vulnerability to pressure-induced ulceration and restores skin neurovascular functions in mice with STZ-induced established diabetes.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 12/2015; 14(1). DOI:10.1186/s12933-015-0185-4 · 3.71 Impact Factor

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