Methadone dose and neonatal abstinence syndrome-systematic review and meta-analysis
ABSTRACT To determine if there is a relationship between maternal methadone dose in pregnancy and the diagnosis or medical treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS).
PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and PsychINFO were searched for studies reporting on methadone use in pregnancy and NAS (1966-2009). The relative risk (RR) of NAS was compared for methadone doses above versus below a range of cut-off points. Summary RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using random effects meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact of limiting meta-analyses to prospective studies or studies using an objective scoring system to diagnose NAS.
A total of 67 studies met inclusion criteria for the systematic review; 29 were included in the meta-analysis. Any differences in the incidence of NAS in infants of women on higher compared with lower doses were statistically non-significant in analyses restricted to prospective studies or to those using an objective scoring system to diagnose NAS.
Severity of the neonatal abstinence syndrome does not appear to differ according to whether mothers are on high- or low-dose methadone maintenance therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Synthetic cathinones have been markedly present in the Spanish drug market in recent years. These substances can be easily obtained in "smart shops", smoke shops, gas stations and web sites where they can be bought and received anonymously avoiding normal law controls. For the first time we present a case of a neonatal withdrawal syndrome in a baby born to a woman who was a chronic consumer of 4-methylethcathinone. The newborn presented with increased jitteriness and irritability, highpitched cry, hypertonia in the limbs and brisk tendon reflexes. 4-Methylethcathinone was identified and quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in the four subsequent 3cm segments of maternal hair (4.3, 4.0, 4.0 and 3.9ng/mg hair starting from most proximal segment) accounting for maternal consumption during the whole pregnancy and before and in neonatal meconium (0.7ng/g) confirming fetal exposure during intrauterine life. Methadone and its metabolite were also measured in maternal and neonatal matrices. Counseling pregnant women and women who may become pregnant on the consequences of fetal drug exposure to new designer drugs like 4-methylethcathinone is critical to preventing poor neonatal outcomes. This case report is informative to those studying designer drugs and those clinically involved with pregnant women abusing psychoactive substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Forensic Science International 10/2014; 245C:e33-e35. DOI:10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.10.027 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In Norway, most opioid-dependent women are in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) with either methadone or buprenorphine throughout pregnancy. The inclusion criteria for both medications are the same and both medications are provided by the same health professionals in any part of the country. International studies comparing methadone and buprenorphine in pregnancy have shown differing neonatal outcomes for the two medications. METHOD: This study compared the neonatal outcomes following prenatal exposure to either methadone or buprenorphine in a national clinical cohort of 139 women/neonates from 1996 to 2009. RESULTS: After adjusting for relevant covariates, buprenorphine-exposed newborns had larger head circumferences and tended to be heavier and longer than methadone-exposed newborns. The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and length of treatment of NAS did not differ between methadone- and buprenorphine-exposed newborns. There was little use of illegal drugs and benzodiazepines during the pregnancies. However, the use of any drugs or benzodiazepines during pregnancy was associated with longer lasting NAS-treatment of the neonates. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical relevance of these findings is that both methadone and buprenorphine are acceptable medications for the use in pregnancy, in line with previous studies. If starting OMT in pregnancy, buprenorphine should be considered as the drug of choice, due to more favorable neonatal growth parameters. Early confirmation of the pregnancy and systematic follow-up throughout the pregnancy are of importance to encourage the women in OMT to abstain from the use of tobacco, alcohol, illegal drugs or misuse of prescribed drugs.Drug and alcohol dependence 07/2012; 127(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.07.001 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pupil diameter is a frequently assessed objective index of the pharmacodynamic effects of opioids in adults, but to our knowledge has never been examined in infants. Such a measure could improve assessment and treatment of neonates exposed to opioids in utero. The present study examined changes in pupil diameter after opioid administration in opioid-exposed infants who required pharmacological treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) to test the feasibility of using pupil diameter as a measure of opioid effects in these infants. Ten infants (2-7days old) receiving methadone (0.4-0.5mg every 12h) for the treatment of NAS participated. A picture of one of each infant's eyes was taken under controlled illumination conditions with a standard digital camera just prior to dosing and 0-1, 2-4, 5-7, and 8-10h after dosing. The diameters of the pupil and iris were measured and relative pupil diameter (pupil diameter expressed as a percentage of iris diameter) was analyzed. Mean (±SE) relative pupil diameter decreased significantly after dosing from 41±2% to 29±2%. After dosing, a significant increasing linear trend was observed over time, with values of 29±2%, 33±3%, 38±3%, and 41±3% at 0-1, 2-4, 5-7, and 8-10h after dosing. Infant pupils respond to opioid administration in the same sensitive, orderly manner as is commonly observed in adults. Pupil diameter appears to be an objective, sensitive measure of neonatal response to opioids that may be a useful complement to, or perhaps at times a replacement for, observer-rated scale scores.Drug and alcohol dependence 06/2012; 126(1-2):268-71. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.05.006 · 3.28 Impact Factor