Sistema para la detección automática de señales acústicas de banda ancha emitidas por mamiferos marinos

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This paper presents the design and preliminary implementation of a computer module for the automatic detection and identification of broadband transient signals emitted by marine mammals generically referred to as clicks. This module will make part of a more wide system designed for detecting and identifying the whole range of signals emitted by marine mammals. The computer module has been extensively tested with simulated signals incorporating the basic structure of sperm whale clicks and with real signals covering a broad spectrum of situations encountered at sea as this corresponding to the presence of high level interfering noise and cluttering of signals.

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Available from: José Luis Sancho-Gómez, Dec 18, 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Traditionally, sperm whale clicks have been described as multipulsed, long duration, nondirectional signals of moderate intensity and with a spectrum peaking below 10 kHz. Such properties are counterindicative of a sonar function, and quite different from the properties of dolphin sonar clicks. Here, data are presented suggesting that the traditional view of sperm whale clicks is incomplete and derived from off-axis recordings of a highly directional source. A limited number of assumed on-axis clicks were recorded and found to be essentially monopulsed clicks, with durations of 100 micros, with a composite directionality index of 27 dB, with source levels up to 236 dB re: 1 microPa (rms), and with centroid frequencies of 15 kHz. Such clicks meet the requirements for long-range biosonar purposes. Data were obtained with a large-aperture, GPS-synchronized array in July 2000 in the Bleik Canyon off Vesterålen, Norway (69 degrees 28' N, 15 degrees 40' E). A total of 14 h of sound recordings was collected from five to ten independent, simultaneously operating recording units. The sound levels measured make sperm whale clicks by far the loudest of sounds recorded from any biological source. On-axis click properties support previous work proposing the nose of sperm whales to operate as a generator of sound.
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 09/2003; 114(2):1143-54. DOI:10.1121/1.1586258 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delphinoids (Delphinidae, Odontoceti) produce tonal sounds and clicks by forcing pressurized air past phonic lips in the nasal complex. It has been proposed that homologous, hypertrophied nasal structures in the deep-diving sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) (Physeteridae, Odontoceti) are dedicated to the production of clicks. However, air volumes in diving mammals are reduced with increasing ambient pressure, which seems likely to influence pneumatic sound production at depth. To study sperm whale sound production at depth, we attached ultrasound time/depth-recording tags to sperm whales by means of a pole and suction cup. We demonstrate that sperm whale click production in terms of output and frequency content is unaffected by hydrostatic reduction in available air volume down to less than 2% of the initial air volume in the nasal complex. We present evidence suggesting that the sound-generating mechanism has a bimodal function, allowing for the production of clicks suited for biosonar and clicks more suited for communication. Shared click features suggest that sound production in sperm whales is based on the same fundamental biomechanics as in smaller odontocetes and that the nasal complexes are therefore not only anatomically but also functionally homologous in generating the initial sound pulse.
    Journal of Experimental Biology 08/2002; 205(Pt 13):1899-906. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regular clicks from diving sperm whales, both large bull males and smaller females, were recorded in deep oceanic water off the Azores and subsequently sampled to computer disks for digital analysis. A total of 8540 clicks were marked and analyzed. Simple temporal analysis of the interclick intervals during feeding dives revealed mean click rates for male sperm whales of 1.1713 s-1 and 1.9455 s-1 for females. Fourier analysis showed distinctive peaks in the spectra of bull male sperm whales at 400 Hz and 2 kHz which were stable over extended periods of up to 20 mins. The clicks contained higher frequency components with energy ranging up to at least 12 kHz but not concentrated at any sharply defined frequency. The clicks of smaller female sperm whales showed similar spectral peaks, shifted to 1.2 and 3 kHz, respectively, but these peaks were less pronounced than those in the male click spectra and less stable with time. Higher frequencies were also present up to at least 15 kHz. The previously reported multiple pulse structure of sperm whale clicks is confirmed, but digital filtering reveals this structure to be frequency dependent. Analysis using the short-time Fourier transform confirms the complex time-frequency structure of individual clicks. The frequencies at which the multiples emerge in male and female clicks supports the idea of air cavities in the sperm whale head acting as sound reflectors, although the magnitude of the second pulse at high frequencies suggests some form of off axis distortion. It is also possible that air cavity resonance in the head of the sperm whale may act to reinforce the high-frequency components of the click, and that such components may have superior range and resolution performance in terms of echolocation.
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 10/1995; 98(3):1279-91. DOI:10.1121/1.413465 · 1.50 Impact Factor