Cycle-dependent matrix remodeling gene expression response in fatigue-loaded rat patellar tendons.
ABSTRACT Expression profiling of selected matrix remodeling genes was conducted to evaluate differences in molecular response to low-cycle (100) and high-cycle (7,200) sub-failure-fatigue loading of patellar tendons. Using our previously developed in vivo patellar tendon model, tendons were loaded for 100 or 7,200 cycles and expression of selected metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and collagens were quantified by real-time RT-PCR at 1- and 7-day post-loading. Expression profiles were also obtained from lacerated tendons as an acute injury model. The high-cycle group showed upregulation of TIMP-1, -2, Col3a1, and Col5a1, and downregulation TIMP-4 at both time points, upregulation of MMP-2 at 7-day post-loading and downregulation of MMP-13 and -14 at 1-day post-loading, suggesting overall repair/remodeling. In contrast, the low-cycle loaded group showed upregulation of MMP-2, -3, -13, and Col12a1 at both time points, upregulation of TIMP-1, -2, -3, Col3a1, and integrin β1 and downregulation of integrin α11 at 1-day post-loading and upregulation of Col1a1 at 7-day post-loading, consistent with a hypertrophic (adaptive) pattern. Lacerated tendons showed a typical acute wound response with upregulation of all examined remodeling genes. Differences found in tendon response to high- and low-cycle loading are suggestive of the underlying mechanisms associated with a healthy or damaging response.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the production of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), collagenase (MMP-1), and its natural inhibitor, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) by diseased human tendon samples in organ culture. Portions of tendons were excised from the shoulders of patients undergoing shoulder surgery, classified as either proximal to the lesion (abnormal) or distal to the lesion (normal) according to their macroscopic appearance at surgery, and placed in organ culture for periods of up to 28 days. The release of collagenase and TIMP activity in the conditioned culture medium was measured. Procollagenase and TIMP were both produced by all the tendon samples for an extended period of time. The levels of enzyme and inhibitor varied between patients, but in most of them TIMP levels were greater than collagenase levels. In one sample of calcified tendon, procollagenase levels were greater than those of TIMP. The mean level of collagenase produced by tendon proximal to the lesion and tendon distal to the lesion were not significantly different (95.2 (SD 106.8) U/g and 34.0 (45.3) U/g, respectively), while the corresponding figures for TIMP were 109.7 (62.3) U/g and 53.0 (27.9) U/g (p = < 0.05), although there was considerable variation in some samples. Western blotting and collagen fragment analysis confirmed that the collagenolytic activity detected was attributable to the metalloproteinase fibroblast collagenase (MMP-1). Tendon tissue can actively secrete procollagenase, an enzyme that, once activated, is capable of remodelling collagen, the major connective tissue component of tendon. Collagenase is produced even in unstimulated cultures, although the concentrations of TIMP are usually greater than that of collagenase in most samples. Some activation of collagenase appeared to have occurred. These results indicate that tendon tissue cells are capable of producing a remodelling response, even in end stage tendon disease.Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 07/1995; 54(7):571-7. · 9.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Collagen types I, III and V were localized at different stages of tendon development: a stage when tendon architecture is established, but immature (14-day), a mature tendon (hatchling) and an intermediate point where there is a rapid growth of tendon fibrils (17-day). The tendon fascicles and their connective tissue investments (endotendenium) were studied. The data show a changing pattern of type III collagen expression in the developing metatarsal tendon. In the immature tendon at 14 days of development, collagen types I and III are codistributed throughout the fascicles and their connective tissue investments. At this stage all of the fibrils regardless of the site are small. With development the regions segregate and become easily recognizable. As this occurs, the fibril diameter distributions diverge; those in the fascicle become larger while those in the endotendenium remain small. During this period, the fascicle loses type III collagen expression, while the endotendenium becomes type III collagen rich. At the same time, the connective tissue investments develop, and the fibrils of the endotendenium remain small during this period, but then become larger in the mature tendon. The increases in diameter are associated with a decrease in type III collagen reactivity. At hatching, both significant collagen type III reactivity and small diameter fibrils are restricted to the outer sheaths. During all stages of tendon development there is a constant small, but detectable amount of type V collagen. However, no correlation between type V reactivity and fibril diameter was observed at any stage of development. These results indicate an inverse relationship between type III collagen reactivity and fibril diameter in the developing tendon.European Journal of Cell Biology 05/1997; 72(4):352-61. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We compared the type I and III collagen amounts and cross-linked telopeptides at the rupture site and two other sites of the same tendon. Tendon samples of ten individuals with total Achilles tendon rupture and six healthy cadavers were collected. The newly synthesized type I and III procollagens were assessed by extracting the soluble propeptides PINP, PICP and PIIINP. The insoluble matrix was solubilized by heat denaturation and trypsin digestion. Hydroxyproline, the cross-linked telopeptide structures of type I (ICTP and SP 4) and III collagens (IIINTP) and the degradation product of type III collagen (tryptic PIIINP) were measured from the digests. The type III collagen content was significantly increased at the rupture site when compared to control sites (5- and 12-fold increased) or cadavers (5-fold increased). No changes in the amounts of newly synthesized type I and III procollagens were observed. The ICTP content decreased and the SP 4/ICTP ratio increased along with ageing, suggesting a structural change in the type of cross-link in the carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen. Type III collagen has accumulated at the rupture site probably due to microtraumas and the subsequent healing process. The increased content of type III collagen can cause thinner collagen fibers, decrease the tensile strength and may finally result in total rupture of the tendon. The age-related change in the nature of the cross-link in the carboxyterminal telopeptide may contribute to this weakening.Journal of Orthopaedic Research 12/2002; 20(6):1352-7. · 2.88 Impact Factor