Image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery for locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma results of first 85 patients.
ABSTRACT Locally advanced unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by poor survival despite chemotherapy and conventional radiation therapy (RT). Recent advances in real-time image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) have made it possible to treat these cancers in two to four fractions followed by systemic chemotherapy.
The aims of this study includes the following: (1) obtain local control of the disease; (2) improve the survival of these unresectable patients; (3) evaluate the toxicity of SRS; and (4) report results of the largest series from a single center.
Pancreatic SRS involves delivery of high doses of accurately targeted radiation given non-invasively in two to four fractions. We treated 85 consecutive patients with locally advanced and recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma from February 2004 to November 2009. Age range: 36-88 years, median 66 years; sex: 50 males, 35 females; race: 79 Caucasian, five African American, one Asian; histology: 80 adenocarcinoma, three islet cell, two other. Pre-SRS staging: T(3-4) 85; N(+) 16, N(x) 57, N(0) 12; M(0) 64, M(1) 21. All patients were unresectable at the time of SRS. Seventy-one had no prior surgical resection, and 14 had local recurrence after prior surgical resection. Twenty-nine patients had progression of disease after prior conventional RT. Location of the tumor: head, 57; body and tail, 28. Pre-SRS chemotherapy was given in 48 patients. All patients received gemcitabine-based chemotherapy regimen after SRS. Median tumor volume was 60 cm(3). PET/CT scans done in 55 patients were positive in 52 and negative in three patients. Average maximum standard uptake value was 6.9. Pain score on a scale of 1-10 was: 0-3 in 54, 4-7 in 18, and 8-10 in 13 patients. SRS doses ranged from 15 to 30 Gy with a mean dose of 25.5 Gy delivered in 3 days divided in equal fractions. Mean conformality index was 1.6, and mean isodose line was 80%.
Tumor control: complete, partial, and stable disease were observed in 78 patients for the duration of 3-36 months with median of 8 months. Pain relief was noted in majority of patients lasting for 18-24 weeks. Most of the patients died of distant disease progression while their primary tumor was controlled. Overall median survival from diagnosis was 18.6 months and from SRS it was 8.65 months. For the group of 35 patients with adenocarcinoma without prior surgical resection or RT and no distant metastases, the average and 1-year survival from diagnosis was 15 months and 50%, respectively, and from SRS it was 11.15 months and 30.5%, respectively.
A total of 19 (22.37%) patients developed grades III/IV GI toxicity including duodenitis, 12 (14.1%); gastritis, 11 (12.9%); diarrhea, three (3.5%); and renal failure was noted in one (1.2%). Three patient had both gastritis and duodenitis. Toxicity was significantly more prevalent in the first 40 patients compared with the last 45 patients (32.5 vs 13.9%).
SRS for unresectable pancreatic carcinoma can be delivered in three fractions with minimal morbidity and a local tumor control rate of 91.7%. The survival is comparable or better than the reported results for advanced pancreatic cancer, specifically for the group of previously untreated patients with unresectable tumors. Development of distant metastases remains a significant factor.
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ABSTRACT: The dismal prognosis of pancreatic cancer reflects into the increased recurrence rate, even after R0 pancreaticoduodenectomy. Although, conventional radiation-, chemo- or surgical therapy in much selected cases, seem to work out favorably long term, less invasive and non-toxic methods with more immediate results are always preferred, concerning the already aggravated status of this group of patients. We present hereby a comprehensive review of the literature concerning the treatment of recurrent pancreatic cancer based on the case of a patient who 20 months after a pancreaticoduodenectomy developed portal hypertension and symptomatic first degree esophageal, gastric and mesenteric varices, caused by the nearly complete splenic vein obstruction at the portal vein confluence. The varices were revascularized by a percutaneous transhepatic placement of an endovascular stent into the splenic vein, along with a sequent stereotactic body radiation therapy for the local tumor control. Thanks to the accuracy and safety of the present combined treatment, the patient one year later presents control of the disease and its complications. Our paper is the first in the international literature that tries to review all the treatment modalities available (surgical, adjuvant, neoadjuvant and palliative therapy) and their efficacy, concerning the locally recurrent pancreatic cancer; furthermore, we tried to analyze the application of the above mentioned combined therapeutic approach in similar cases, elucidating simultaneously all the questions that arise. The limited existing data in the international literature and the lack of randomized controlled trials make this effort difficult, but the physician should be aware after all of all the available and innovative treatment modalities, before he chooses one. Finally, we would like to emphasize the fact that not only the local control but also the management of the complications are important for a prolonged median survival and a better quality of life after all.Surgical Oncology 05/2011; 20(4):e133-42. DOI:10.1016/j.suronc.2011.04.004 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been used successfully to treat patients with locally advanced pancreas cancer. However, many patients develop metastatic disease soon after diagnosis and may receive little benefit from such therapy. We therefore retrospectively analyzed a planned strategy of initial chemotherapy with restaging and then treatment for those patients with no evidence of metastatic progression with SBRT. Forty-seven patients received gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) per week for 3 weeks then 1 week off) until tolerance, at least six cycles, or progression. Patients without metastases after two cycles were treated with SBRT (tolerance-based dose of 24-36 Gy in 3 fractions) between the third and fourth cycles without interrupting the chemotherapy cycles. Eight of the 47 patients (17%) were found to have metastatic disease after two cycles of gemcitabine; the remaining 39 patients received SBRT. The median follow-up for survivors was 21 months (range, 6-36 months). The median overall survival for all patients who received SBRT was 20 months, and the median progression-free survival was 15 months. The local control rate was 85% (33 of 39 patients); and 54% of patients (21 of 39) developed metastases. Late Grade III toxicities such as GI bleeding and obstruction were observed in 9% (3/39) of patients. For patients with locally advanced pancreas cancer, this strategy uses local therapy for those who are most likely to benefit from it and spares those patients with early metastatic progression from treatment. SBRT delivers such local therapy safely with minimal interruption to systemic chemotherapy, thereby potentially improving the outcome in these patients.International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 06/2011; 81(4):e615-22. DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2011.04.045 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to study the predictive value of combined 18F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography and computerized tomography (FDG-PET-CT), on outcomes in locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma (LAPC) patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (C-CRT). Thirty-two unresectable LAPC patients received 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fr) of RT and concurrent 5-FU followed by 4 to 6 cycles of gemcitabine consolidation. Response was evaluated by FDG-PET-CT at post-C-CRT 12-week. Patients were stratified into two groups according to the median difference between pre- and post-treatment maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) as an indicator of response for comparative analysis. At a median follow-up of 16.1 months, 16 (50.0%) patients experienced local/regional failures, 6 of which were detected on the first follow-up FDG-PET-CT. There were no marginal or isolated regional failures. Median pre- and post-treatment SUVmax and median difference were 14.5, 3.9, and -63.7%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local-regional progression-free survival (LRPFS) were 14.5, 7.3, and 10.3 months, respectively. Median OS, PFS, and LRPFS for those with greater (N = 16) versus lesser (N = 16) SUVmax change were 17.0 versus 9.8 (p = 0.001), 8.4 versus 3.8 (p = 0.005), and 12.3 versus 6.9 months (p = 0.02), respectively. On multivariate analysis, SUVmax difference was predictive of OS, PFS, and LRPFS, independent of existing covariates. Significantly higher OS, PFS, and LRPFS in patients with greater SUVmax difference suggest that FDG-PET-CT-based metabolic response assessment is an independent predictor of clinical outcomes in LAPC patients treated with definitive C-CRT.BMC Gastroenterology 11/2011; 11(1):123. DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-11-123 · 2.11 Impact Factor