9-(β-D-Arabinofuranosyl)guanine (AraG) is a guanosine analog that has a proven efficacy in the treatment of T-cell lymphoblastic disease. To test the possibility of using a radiofluorinated AraG as an imaging agent, we have synthesized 2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-9-β-D-arabinofuranosylguanine ([(18)F]F-AraG) and investigated its uptake in T cells.
We have synthesized [(18)F]F-AraG via a direct fluorination of 2-N-acetyl-6-O-((4-nitrophenyl)ethyl)-9-(3',5'-di-O-trityl-2'-O-trifyl-β-D-ribofuranosyl)guanine with [(18)F]KF/K.2.2.2 in DMSO at 85°C for 45 min. [(18)F]F-AraG uptake in both a CCRF-CEM leukemia cell line (unactivated) and activated primary thymocytes was evaluated.
We have successfully prepared [(18)F]F-AraG in 7-10% radiochemical yield (decay corrected) with a specific activity of 0.8-1.3 Ci/μmol. Preliminary cell uptake experiments showed that both a CCRF-CEM leukemia cell line and activated primary thymocytes take up the [(18)F]F-AraG.
For the first time to the best of our knowledge, [(18)F]F-AraG has been successfully synthesized by direct fluorination of an appropriate precursor of a guanosine nucleoside. This approach maybe also useful for the synthesis of other important positron emission tomography (PET) probes such as [(18)F]FEAU, [(18)F]FMAU, and [(18)F]FBAU which are currently synthesized by multiple steps and involve lengthy purification. The cell uptake studies support future studies to investigate the use of [(18)F]F-AraG as a PET imaging agent of T cells.
"One such PET probe, [(18)F]FAC (1-[2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoroarabinofuranosyl] cytosine), was used to visualize lymphoid organs and localized activation of anti-tumor T cell responses 61. The development of other probes which may selectively image immune activation are currently underway 62. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune responses to cancer are dynamic processes which take place through the concerted activity of innate and adaptive cell populations. In order to fully understand the efficacy of immune therapies for cancer, it is critical to understand how the treatment modulates the function of each cell type involved in the anti-tumor immune response. Molecular imaging is a versatile method for longitudinal studies of cellular localization and function. The development of reporter genes for tracking cell movement and function was a powerful addition to the immunologist's toolbox. This review will highlight the advances and challenges in the use of reporter gene imaging to track immune cell localization and function in cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positron emission tomography (PET) reporter gene imaging can be used to non-invasively monitor cell-based therapies. Therapeutic
cells engineered to express a PET reporter gene (PRG) specifically accumulate a PET reporter probe (PRP) and can be detected
by PET imaging. Expanding the utility of this technology requires the development of new non-immunogenic PRGs. Here we describe
a new PRG-PRP system that employs, as the PRG, a mutated form of human thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) and 2′-deoxy-2′-18F-5-methyl-1-β-l-arabinofuranosyluracil (l-18F-FMAU) as the PRP. We identified l-18F-FMAU as a candidate PRP and determined its biodistribution in mice and humans. Using structure-guided enzyme engineering,
we generated a TK2 double mutant (TK2-N93D/L109F) that efficiently phosphorylates l-18F-FMAU. The N93D/L109F TK2 mutant has lower activity for the endogenous nucleosides thymidine and deoxycytidine than wild
type TK2, and its ectopic expression in therapeutic cells is not expected to alter nucleotide metabolism. Imaging studies
in mice indicate that the sensitivity of the new human TK2-N93D/L109F PRG is comparable with that of a widely used PRG based
on the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase. These findings suggest that the TK2-N93D/L109F/l-18F-FMAU PRG-PRP system warrants further evaluation in preclinical and clinical applications of cell-based therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upon activation, T cells of various subsets are the most important mediators in cell-mediated immune responses. Activated T cells play an important role in immune system related diseases such as chronic inflammatory diseases, viral infections, autoimmune disease, transplant rejection, Crohn disease, diabetes, and many more. Therefore, efforts have been made to both visualize and treat activated T cells specifically. This review summarizes imaging approaches and selective therapeutics for activated T cells and gives an outlook on how tracking and treating can be combined into theragnositc agents for activated T cells.
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology 12/2013; 23(1):17-21. DOI:10.1016/S1773-2247(13)50002-5 · 0.48 Impact Factor
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