Treatment of pituitary adenomas using radiosurgery and radiotherapy: a single center experience and review of literature.

Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
Neurosurgical Review (Impact Factor: 1.86). 04/2010; 34(2):181-9. DOI: 10.1007/s10143-010-0285-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) and gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) are used as adjuvant therapies to surgical resection for functional and non-functional pituitary adenomas, although their optimum role in the treatment algorithm, as well as long-term safety and efficacy, still awaits further study. We report a single center experience with 33 patients with non-functional (16 patients), ACTH- (five patients), GH- (four patients), or prolactin-secreting (eight patients) tumors treated with FRT or SRS. The median tumor diameter was 1.9 cm, and the median follow-up was 36 months. For GKSRS, the median dosage was 16 Gy for non-functional adenomas and 23 Gy for hormone-secreting tumors. The median total dose for FRT was 50.4 Gy over 28 fractions (median). Two patients (6%) demonstrated radiographic evidence of tumor progression, three patients (9%) demonstrated radiation-induced visual field deficits on neuro-ophthalmic evaluation, and two patients (6%) suffered from radiation-induced hypopituitarism. Biochemical control, defined as normalized hormone values in the absence of medical therapy, was achieved in five out of eight prolactinoma patients and two out of five patients with Cushing's disease, but none of the four patients with acromegaly. These results are presented with a review of the relevant literature on the differential characteristics of FRT versus SRS in the treatment of functional and non-functional pituitary adenomas and validate postoperative irradiation as a potentially safe and effective means for tumor control.

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to evaluate a prospectively initiated two-center protocol of risk-adapted single-fraction (SRS) or fractionated radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with nonsecretory pituitary adenomas (NSA).
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    ABSTRACT: To determine visual outcome including the occurrence of radiation induced optic neuropathy (RION) as well as tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) of benign anterior skull base meningiomas or pituitary adenomas. Thirty-nine patients treated with FSRT for anterior skull base meningiomas and 55 patients treated with FSRT for pituitary adenomas between January 1999 and December 2009 with at least 2 years follow-up were included. Patients were followed up prospectively with magnetic resonance imaging scans, visual acuity and visual field examinations. RION was found in four (10 %) patients with anterior skull base meningiomas and seven patients (13 %) with pituitary adenomas. The five-year actuarial freedom from 25 % RION visual field loss was 94 % following FSRT. Actuarial 2-, 5- and 10-year tumor control rates were 100, 88.4 and 64.5 % for anterior skull base meningiomas and 100, 98.2 and 94.9 % for pituitary adenomas, respectively. Patients with an impaired visual field function pre-FSRT were more likely to experience worsened function (p = 0.016). We found that RION, was a relatively uncommon event, in a large prospective cohort of patients that were systematically monitored following FSRT of benign anterior skull base tumors. Long term tumor control was favorable, especially for pituitary adenomas.
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