Fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) and gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) are used as adjuvant therapies to surgical resection for functional and non-functional pituitary adenomas, although their optimum role in the treatment algorithm, as well as long-term safety and efficacy, still awaits further study. We report a single center experience with 33 patients with non-functional (16 patients), ACTH- (five patients), GH- (four patients), or prolactin-secreting (eight patients) tumors treated with FRT or SRS. The median tumor diameter was 1.9 cm, and the median follow-up was 36 months. For GKSRS, the median dosage was 16 Gy for non-functional adenomas and 23 Gy for hormone-secreting tumors. The median total dose for FRT was 50.4 Gy over 28 fractions (median). Two patients (6%) demonstrated radiographic evidence of tumor progression, three patients (9%) demonstrated radiation-induced visual field deficits on neuro-ophthalmic evaluation, and two patients (6%) suffered from radiation-induced hypopituitarism. Biochemical control, defined as normalized hormone values in the absence of medical therapy, was achieved in five out of eight prolactinoma patients and two out of five patients with Cushing's disease, but none of the four patients with acromegaly. These results are presented with a review of the relevant literature on the differential characteristics of FRT versus SRS in the treatment of functional and non-functional pituitary adenomas and validate postoperative irradiation as a potentially safe and effective means for tumor control.
"Our visual outcome data compare somewhat unfavorably with earlier series of tumors of the anterior skull base region treated with FSRT, with several studies reporting a low 0–6 % incidence of visual loss for meningiomas around the anterior visual pathways [3, 14–20] and similarly for pituitary adenomas, in the range 0–9 % [2, 21–29]. However, direct comparison with these previous studies is difficult, since median follow-up for most of them was significantly shorter [2, 3, 15, 16, 19, 20, 22, 24–27, 29] and several included a number of patients with less than 2 years follow up [2, 16, 20, 22, 24, 26, 27, 29, 30]. Indeed in our series, RION was in many cases a late event. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine visual outcome including the occurrence of radiation induced optic neuropathy (RION) as well as tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) of benign anterior skull base meningiomas or pituitary adenomas. Thirty-nine patients treated with FSRT for anterior skull base meningiomas and 55 patients treated with FSRT for pituitary adenomas between January 1999 and December 2009 with at least 2 years follow-up were included. Patients were followed up prospectively with magnetic resonance imaging scans, visual acuity and visual field examinations. RION was found in four (10 %) patients with anterior skull base meningiomas and seven patients (13 %) with pituitary adenomas. The five-year actuarial freedom from 25 % RION visual field loss was 94 % following FSRT. Actuarial 2-, 5- and 10-year tumor control rates were 100, 88.4 and 64.5 % for anterior skull base meningiomas and 100, 98.2 and 94.9 % for pituitary adenomas, respectively. Patients with an impaired visual field function pre-FSRT were more likely to experience worsened function (p = 0.016). We found that RION, was a relatively uncommon event, in a large prospective cohort of patients that were systematically monitored following FSRT of benign anterior skull base tumors. Long term tumor control was favorable, especially for pituitary adenomas.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology 02/2014; 118(1). DOI:10.1007/s11060-014-1399-0 · 3.07 Impact Factor
"Depending upon their histopathology, they are inactive or hormone-secreting lesions [1,2]. They are frequent causes of pituitary dysfunction comprising both suppression-related hypopituitarism, but also adenoma-derived hypersecretion . Besides endocrinological morbidity, pituitary adenomas often lead to visual impairment related to both optic nerve affection with reduced visual fields and acuity, but also disturbed oculomotor function – especially in cases of cavernous sinus infiltration . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Radiotherapy is controversially discussed in the management of benign disorders for fear of late sequelae such as tumor induction. This study was initiated to investigate long-term toxicity, treatment outcome and prognostic factors after radiotherapy (RT) in patients with pituitary adenomas.
92 patients with pituitary adenomas were included in this analysis. RT was conducted using either 3D conformal (16%) or fractionated stereotactic techniques (83%) in a postoperative adjuvant setting (16%), as second-line treatment for recurring tumors (78%) or as primary treatment (6%). Postoperatively, RT was offered to patients with residual tumor tissue or in case of locally extensive adenomas, in whom early recurrence was deemed likely. Patients were followed for a median time of 152.5 months, and analysed for overall and local progression-free survival (OS and LPFS). Multiple factors were analysed for prognostic impact. Patients were contacted with an institutional questionnaire about qualiy of life (QOL). Statistical analysis was performed using the log-rank test and the Kaplan-Meier method using a software tool (SPSS 19.0).
Median follow-up was 152.5 months. Before treatment, 2% of all patients were diagnosed with adenoma-related hypopituitarism. Following surgery, 68% suffered from new pituitary deficits. RT was associated with mild toxicity, including visual deficits (5.4%) and hypopituitarism (10.9%). In particular, no radiation-induced brain necrosis or malignancy was observed. QOL was reported to be stable or improved in 92% of all patients, and RT was perceived to not compromise but increase QOL in the vast majority of patients (95%). OS after RT was 93.3% and 61.0% at 120 and 240 months. LPFS following RT was 90.4 and 75.5% at 120 and 240 months. Early initiation of RT after surgery instead of reserving it for recurring adenomas predisposed for improved outcome.
RT for pituitary adenomas is safe and and self-reported QOL is stable or improved by almost all patients. Hypopituitarism rates are low. Local control appears improved in patients irradiated postoperatively over those undergoing RT for previously resected recurrent tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review physiology of prolactin (PRL), cause and managment of hyperprolactinemia, and discuss evolving diverse roles of PRL in men's health.
Hyperprolactinemia can be physiologically found after sexual activities, exercise, lactation, during pregnancy, and after stressful venipuncture. Elevated PRL can be caused by medications use, renal failure, hypothyroidism, and by prolactinoma - PRL secreting tumors. Symptomatic hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas should be treated to lower PRL levels, decrease tumor size, and restore gonadal function. Three modes of treatment are typically utilized: pharmacological, radiosurgery with gamma radiation, and external beam radiation. Pharmacological treatment of prolactinomas is mainly based on dopamine agonists. The most frequently used dopamine agonists are bromocriptine and cabergoline. Cabergoline becoming the preferred drug in the treatment of prolactinomas because of higher response rate and less side-effects. Bromocriptine has been recently approved to improve glycemic control in diabetes mellitus.
PRL plays a diverse role in men's reproduction and health. Detecting and treating elevated PRL may not only improve infertility and hypogonadism but also have a positive effect on the metabolic profile of patient and control of glycemic control and metabolic profile - an important advantage considering dramatic and worldwide increase in obesity and diabetes.
Current opinion in urology 09/2011; 21(6):527-34. DOI:10.1097/MOU.0b013e32834bdf01 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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