Induction of protective immunity by vaccination with wild-type apo superoxide dismutase 1 in mutant SOD1 transgenic mice.
ABSTRACT Vaccinations targeting extracellular superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutants are beneficial in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Because of its misfolded nature, wild-type nonmetallated SOD1 protein (WT-apo) may have therapeutic application for vaccination of various SOD1 mutants. We compared the effects of WT-apo to those of a G93A SOD1 vaccine in low-copy G93A SOD1 transgenic mice. Both SOD1 vaccines induced antibody against G93A SOD1 and significantly delayed disease onset compared with saline/adjuvant controls. WT-apo SOD1 significantly extended the life span of vaccinated mice. The vaccines potentiated TH2 deviation in the spinal cord as determined by the ratio of interleukin-4 to interferon-γ (IFNγ) or tumor necrosis factor and induced C1q deposition around motor neurons. Transgenic mice had abundant microglial expression of signal transducers and activators of transcription 4, an activator of transcription of IFNγ, in the spinal cord implicating IFNγ in the pathogenesis. On the other hand, the sera from G93A SOD1-vaccinated mice showed higher IFNγ or tumor necrosis factor and yielded a lower IgG1/IgG2c ratio than the sera from WT-apo-vaccinated mice. These results indicate that the TH1/TH2 milieu is affected by specific vaccinations and that antigenicity might counteract beneficial effects by enhancing TH1 immunity. Thus, because of its lower TH1 induction, WT-apo may be a therapeutic option and have broader application in ALS associated with diverse SOD1 mutations.
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ABSTRACT: The past few years have seen the identification of dozens of genes with causal roles in motor neuron diseases (MNDs), particularly for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and hereditary spastic paraplegia. Although many additional MND genes remain to be identified, the accumulated genetic evidence has already provided new insights into MND pathogenesis, which adds to the well-established involvement of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations. The pathways that have been recently implicated include those that affect RNA processing, axonal transport and mitochondrial function. The functional classes of MND genes identified so far are likely to aid the selection of high-priority candidate genes for future investigation, including those for so-called sporadic cases.Nature Reviews Genetics 10/2009; 10(11):769-82. · 41.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AMYOTROPHIC lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord1,2. Its cause is unknown and it is uniformly fatal, typically within five years3. About 10% of cases are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, with high penetrance after the sixth decade4,5. In most instances, sporadic and autosomal dominant familial ALS (FALS) are clinically similar4,6,7. We have previously shown that in some but not all FALS pedigrees the disease is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 21q (refs 8,9). Here we report tight genetic linkage between FALS and a gene that encodes a cytosolic, Cu/Zn-binding superoxide dismutase (SOD1), a homodimeric metalloenzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of the toxic superoxide anion O-2 to O2 and H2O2 (ref. 10). Given this linkage and the potential role of free radical toxicity in other neurodenegerative disorders11, we investigated SOD1 as a candidate gene in FALS. We identified 11 different SOD1 missense mutations in 13 different FALS families.Nature 08/1993; 364(6435):362. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent reports indicate that a growing number of intracellular proteins are not only prone to pathological aggregation but can also be released and "infect" neighboring cells. Therefore, many complex diseases may obey a simple model of propagation where the penetration of seeds into hosts determines spatial spread and disease progression. We term these proteins prionoids, as they appear to infect their neighbors just like prions--but how can bulky protein aggregates be released from cells and how do they access other cells? The widespread existence of such prionoids raises unexpected issues that question our understanding of basic cell biology.Neuron 12/2009; 64(6):783-90. · 15.77 Impact Factor