Suboptimal Potassium Intake and Potential Impact on Population Blood Pressure

Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 17.33). 09/2010; 170(16):1501-2. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2010.284
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    • "Such a result might be due to the distribution of potassium intake across genders. As shown in a previous report [32], the current data also showed that potassium intake among women was generally lower than men. Approximately 92% of the women included in this study consumed less than the Adequate Intake level (4.7 g/day) of potassium, whereas this value was 82.7% among men. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lower potassium intake is considered to be correlated with diabetes incidence. However, few studies have investigated the effect of potassium intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS). Data was taken from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008-2010) using weighted adjustment. MetS was defined as per the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Homeostasis model assessment indices were calculated to diagnosis insulin resistance (IR). A total of 16,637 participants (44±0.25 years) were included. Women ingested lower amounts of potassium (2.71±0.02 g/day) than men (3.45±0.03 g/day). A curvilinear association between potassium intake and MetS prevalence was found among women. Women with less than the Adequate Intake (4.7 g/day) of potassium had an 11% risk reduction for MetS (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.96; P = 0.004) and a 10% risk reduction for IR (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.99; P = 0.026) for every 1 g/day potassium increase. Compared with the reference group (3.5-4.5 g/day), potassium intake was inversely associated with an increased risk of MetS (1.5-2.5 g/day; OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.63; P = 0.035; <1.5 g/day; OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06-1.85; P = 0.017) and IR (<1.5 g/day; OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.76; P = 0.021). This relationship was more prominent in postmenopausal women, but not observed among men. Higher potassium intake is significantly associated with a lower MetS prevalence in women, and IR is believed to be connected.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e55106. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055106 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary potassium intake has been demonstrated to significantly lower blood pressure (BP) in a dose-responsive manner in both hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients in observational studies, clinical trials, and several meta-analyses. In hypertensive patients, the linear dose-response relationship is a 1.0 mm Hg reduction in systolic BP and a 0.52 mm Hg reduction in diastolic BP per 0.6 g per day increase in dietary potassium intake that is independent of baseline potassium deficiency. The average reduction in BP with 4.7 g (120 mmol) of dietary potassium per day is 8.0/4.1 mm Hg, depending race and on the relative intakes of other minerals such as sodium, magnesium, and calcium. If the dietary sodium chloride intake is high, there is a greater BP reduction with an increased intake of dietary potassium. Blacks have a greater decrease in BP than Caucasians with an equal potassium intake. Potassium-induced reduction in BP significantly lowers the incidence of stroke (cerebrovascular accident, CVA), coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and other cardiovascular events. However, potassium also reduces the risk of CVA independent of BP reductions. Increasing consumption of potassium to 4.7 g per day predicts lower event rates for future cardiovascular disease, with estimated decreases of 8% to 15% in CVA and 6% to 11% in myocardial infarction.
    Current Hypertension Reports 03/2011; 13(4):309-17. DOI:10.1007/s11906-011-0197-8 · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several epidemiologic studies suggested that higher sodium and lower potassium intakes were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Few studies have examined joint effects of dietary sodium and potassium intake on risk of mortality. To investigate estimated usual intakes of sodium and potassium as well as their ratio in relation to risk of all-cause and CVD mortality, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File (1988-2006), a prospective cohort study of a nationally representative sample of 12,267 US adults, studied all-cause, cardiovascular, and ischemic heart (IHD) diseases mortality. During a mean follow-up period of 14.8 years, we documented a total of 2270 deaths, including 825 CVD deaths and 443 IHD deaths. After multivariable adjustment, higher sodium intake was associated with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.41 per 1000 mg/d), whereas higher potassium intake was associated with lower mortality risk (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.94 per 1000 mg/d). For sodium-potassium ratio, the adjusted HRs comparing the highest quartile with the lowest quartile were HR, 1.46 (95% CI, 1.27-1.67) for all-cause mortality; HR, 1.46 (95% CI, 1.11-1.92) for CVD mortality; and HR, 2.15 (95% CI, 1.48-3.12) for IHD mortality. These findings did not differ significantly by sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, hypertension status, education levels, or physical activity. Our findings suggest that a higher sodium-potassium ratio is associated with significantly increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality, and higher sodium intake is associated with increased total mortality in the general US population.
    Archives of internal medicine 07/2011; 171(13):1183-91. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.257 · 17.33 Impact Factor
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