Suboptimal Potassium Intake and Potential Impact on Population Blood Pressure

Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 13.25). 09/2010; 170(16):1501-2. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2010.284
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Background To investigated the influence of dietary potassium on the sodium effect on BP in the general population and the adherence of current recommendations for sodium and potassium intake. Methods An overnight (12 h) urine sample was collected in a population-based study to investigate cardiovascular risk. A sub-sample of 1,285 subjects (25-64 years) free from any medication interfering with BP or potassium excretion was studied. Results 86.0% of participants consumed over 6 g of salt/day and 87.7% less than the recommended intake of potassium (4.7 g). Potassium excretion and the sodium to potassium ratio were significantly related to systolic and diastolic BP only in subjects consuming more than 6 g/day of salt. Subjects in the highest sodium to potassium ratio quartile (surrogate of unhealthy diet) presented 8 mmHg and 7 mmHg higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, when compared with the first quartile whilst individuals in the fourth quartile of urinary potassium excretion (healthier diet) showed 6 mmHg and 4 mmHg lower systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, compared with the first quartile. Conclusion Our data indicate that when people have an increased intake of potassium, high intake of sodium is not associated with higher BP.
    Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH) 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jash.2014.01.001 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of sodium reduction, potassium intake, and the ratio of sodium to potassium (Na/K ratio) on hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Major gaps exist in knowledge regarding these issues in China. We analyzed the patterns and trends of dietary sodium intake, potassium intake, and the Na/K ratio and their relations with incident hypertension in China. The China Health and Nutrition Survey cohort includes 16,869 adults aged 20-60 y from 1991 to 2009. Three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and condiment and food weights provided detailed dietary data. Multinomial logistic regression models determined trends and patterns of sodium and potassium intake and the Na/K ratio. Models for survival-time data estimated the hazard of incident hypertension. Sodium intake is decreasing but remains double the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Most sodium comes from added condiments. Adults in the central provinces have the highest sodium intake and the most rapid increase in hypertension. Potassium intake has increased slightly but is below half of the recommended amount. The Na/K ratio is significantly higher than the recommended amounts. Recent measurements of high sodium intake, low potassium intake, and high Na/K ratio have strong independent dose-response associations with incident hypertension. Reducing sodium in processed foods, the major public health strategy in Western countries, may be less effective in China, where salt intake remains high. Replacing sodium with potassium in salt to control and prevent hypertension in China should be considered along with other public health and clinical prevention options.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2013; 99(2). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.059121 · 6.92 Impact Factor