Article

Insulin Resistance and Alzheimer-like Reductions in Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism for Cognitively Normal Adults With Prediabetes or Early Type 2 Diabetes

Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA.
Archives of neurology (Impact Factor: 7.01). 01/2011; 68(1):51-7. DOI: 10.1001/archneurol.2010.225
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Insulin resistance is a causal factor in prediabetes (PD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and increases the risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD). Reductions in cerebral glucose metabolic rate (CMRglu) as measured by fludeoxyglucose F 18-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in parietotemporal, frontal, and cingulate cortices are associated with increased AD risk and can be observed years before dementia onset.
To examine whether greater homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) is associated with reduced resting CMRglu in areas vulnerable in AD in cognitively normal adults with newly diagnosed PD or T2D (PD/T2D), and to determine whether adults with PD/T2D have abnormal patterns of CMRglu during a memory encoding task.
Randomized crossover design of resting and activation FDG-PET.
University imaging center and Veterans Affairs clinical research unit.
Twenty-three older adults (mean [SEM] age, 74.4 [1.4] years) with no prior diagnosis of diabetes but who met American Diabetes Association glycemic criteria for PD (n = 11) or diabetes (n = 12) based on fasting or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose values and 6 adults (mean [SEM] age, 74.3 [2.8] years) with normal fasting glucose values and glucose tolerance. No participant met Petersen criteria for mild cognitive impairment.
Fasting participants underwent resting and cognitive activation FDG-PET imaging on separate days. Following a 30-minute transmission scan, subjects received an intravenous injection of 5 mCi of FDG, and the emission scan commenced 40 minutes after injection. In the activation condition, a 35-minute memory encoding task was initiated at the time of tracer injection. Subjects were instructed to remember a repeating list of 20 words randomly presented in series through earphones. Delayed free recall was assessed once the emission scan was complete.
The HOMA-IR value was calculated using fasting glucose and insulin values obtained during OGTT screening and then correlated with CMRglu values obtained during the resting scan. Resting CMRglu values were also subtracted from CMRglu values obtained during the memory encoding activation scan to examine task-related patterns of CMRglu.
Greater insulin resistance was associated with an AD-like pattern of reduced CMRglu in frontal, parietotemporal, and cingulate regions in adults with PD/T2D. The relationship between CMRglu and HOMA-IR was independent of age, 2-hour OGTT glucose concentration, or apolipoprotein E ε4 allele carriage. During the memory encoding task, healthy adults showed activation in right anterior and inferior prefrontal cortices, right inferior temporal cortex, and medial and posterior cingulate regions. Adults with PD/T2D showed a qualitatively different pattern during the memory encoding task, characterized by more diffuse and extensive activation, and recalled fewer items on the delayed memory test.
Insulin resistance may be a marker of AD risk that is associated with reduced CMRglu and subtle cognitive impairments at the earliest stage of disease, even before the onset of mild cognitive impairment.

1 Follower
 · 
112 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disorder characterized by profound memory loss and progressive dementia. Accumulating evidence suggests that Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, significantly increases the risk for developing AD. Whereas amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and neurofibrillary tangles are major histological hallmarks of AD, impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism precedes these pathological changes during the early stage of AD and likely triggers or exacerbates AD pathology. However, the mechanisms linking disturbed insulin signaling/glucose metabolism and AD pathogenesis remain unclear. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), a major apolipoprotein E receptor, plays critical roles in lipoprotein metabolism, synaptic maintenance, and clearance of Aβ in the brain. Here, we demonstrate that LRP1 interacts with the insulin receptor β in the brain and regulates insulin signaling and glucose uptake. LRP1 deficiency in neurons leads to impaired insulin signaling as well as reduced levels of glucose transporters GLUT3 and GLUT4. Consequently, glucose uptake is reduced. By using an in vivo microdialysis technique sampling brain glucose concentration in freely moving mice, we further show that LRP1 deficiency in conditional knock-out mice resulted in glucose intolerance in the brain. We also found that hyperglycemia suppresses LRP1 expression, which further exacerbates insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and AD pathology. As loss of LRP1 expression is seen in AD brains, our study provides novel insights into insulin resistance in AD. Our work also establishes new targets that can be explored for AD prevention or therapy. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355851-09$15.00/0.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 04/2015; 35(14):5851-9. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5180-14.2015 · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Growing evidence suggests that diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the strongest risk factors for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear why DM accelerates AD pathology. In cynomolgus monkeys older than 25 years, senile plaques (SPs) are spontaneously and consistently observed in their brains, and neurofibrillary tangles are present at 32 years of age and older. In laboratory-housed monkeys, obesity is occasionally observed and frequently leads to development of type 2 DM. In the present study, we performed histopathological and biochemical analyses of brain tissue in cynomolgus monkeys with type 2 DM to clarify the relationship between DM and AD pathology. Here, we provide the evidence that DM accelerates Aβ pathology in vivo in nonhuman primates who had not undergone any genetic manipulation. In DM-affected monkey brains, SPs were observed in frontal and temporal lobe cortices, even in monkeys younger than 20 years. Biochemical analyses of brain revealed that the amount of GM1-ganglioside-bound Aβ (GAβ)-the endogenous seed for Aβ fibril formation in the brain-was clearly elevated in DM-affected monkeys. Furthermore, the level of Rab GTPases was also significantly increased in the brains of adult monkeys with DM, almost to the same levels as in aged monkeys. Intraneuronal accumulation of enlarged endosomes was also observed in DM-affected monkeys, suggesting that exacerbated endocytic disturbance may underlie the acceleration of Aβ pathology due to DM.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117362. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117362 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that includes obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Accumulating evidence implies that MetS contributes to the development and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD); however, the factors connecting this association have not been determined. Insulin resistance (IR) is at the core of MetS and likely represent the key link between MetS and AD. In the central nervous system, insulin plays key roles in learning and memory, and AD patients exhibit impaired insulin signaling that is similar to that observed in MetS. As we face an alarming increase in obesity and T2D in all age groups, understanding the relationship between MetS and AD is vital for the identification of potential therapeutic targets. Recently, several diabetes therapies that enhance insulin signaling are being tested for a potential therapeutic benefit in AD and dementia. In this review, we will discuss MetS as a risk factor for AD, focusing on IR and the recent progress and future directions of insulin-based therapies.
    03/2015; 47(3):e149. DOI:10.1038/emm.2015.3

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
60 Downloads
Available from
May 27, 2014