Article

Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet.

Research Centre for Exercise and Health, Department of Biomedical Kinesiology, K.U. Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
The Journal of Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.54). 11/2010; 588(Pt 21):4289-302. DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.196493
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A fat-rich energy-dense diet is an important cause of insulin resistance. Stimulation of fat turnover in muscle cells during dietary fat challenge may contribute to maintenance of insulin sensitivity. Exercise in the fasted state markedly stimulates energy provision via fat oxidation. Therefore, we investigated whether exercise training in the fasted state is more potent than exercise in the fed state to rescue whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during a period of hyper-caloric fat-rich diet. Healthy male volunteers (18-25 y) received a hyper-caloric (∼+30% kcal day(-1)) fat-rich (50% of kcal) diet for 6 weeks. Some of the subjects performed endurance exercise training (4 days per week) in the fasted state (F; n = 10), whilst the others ingested carbohydrates before and during the training sessions (CHO; n = 10). The control group did not train (CON; n = 7). Body weight increased in CON (+3.0 ± 0.8 kg) and CHO (+1.4 ± 0.4 kg) (P < 0.01), but not in F (+0.7 ± 0.4 kg, P = 0.13). Compared with CON, F but not CHO enhanced whole-body glucose tolerance and the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (P < 0.05). Muscle GLUT4 protein content was increased in F (+28%) compared with both CHO (P = 0.05) and CON (P < 0.05). Furthermore, only training in F elevated AMP-activated protein kinase α phosphorylation (+25%) as well as up-regulated fatty acid translocase/CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 mRNA levels compared with CON (∼+30%). High-fat diet increased intramyocellular lipid but not diacylglycerol and ceramide contents, either in the absence or presence of training. This study for the first time shows that fasted training is more potent than fed training to facilitate adaptations in muscle and to improve whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during hyper-caloric fat-rich diet.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Koen Pelgrim, Jun 20, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
147 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A recent meta-analysis examining long-term mortality in subjects who participated in controlled studies evaluating the impact of daily aspirin on vascular risk, has concluded that aspirin confers substantial protection from cancer mortality. Remarkably, low-dose aspirin was as effective as higher-dose regimens; hence this protection may be achievable with minimal risk. There is reason to believe that this protection stems primarily from inhibition of cox-2 in pre-neoplastic lesions. Since safe aspirin regimens can only achieve a partial and transitory inhibition of cox-2, it may be feasible to complement the cancer-protective benefit of aspirin with other measures which decrease cox-2 expression or which limit the bioactivity of cox-2-derived PGE2. Oxidative stress boosts cox-2 expression by up-regulating activation of NF-kappaB and MAP kinases; NADPH oxidase activation may thus promote carcinogenesis by increasing cox-2 expression while also amplifying oxidant-mediated mutagenesis. A prospective cohort study has observed that relatively elevated serum bilirubin levels are associated with a marked reduction in subsequent cancer mortality; this may reflect bilirubin's physiological role as a potent inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. It may be feasible to mimic this protective effect by supplementing with spirulina, a rich source of a phycobilin which shares bilirubin's ability to inhibit NADPH oxidase. Ancillary antioxidant measures - phase 2 inducing phytochemicals, melatonin, N-acetylcysteine, and astaxanthin - may also aid cox-2 down-regulation. The cancer protection often associated with high-normal vitamin D status may be attributable, in part, to the ability of the activated vitamin D receptor to decrease cox-2 expression while promoting PGE2 catabolism and suppressing the expression of PGE2 receptors. Diets with a relatively low ratio of omega-6 to long-chain omega-3 fats may achieve cancer protection by antagonizing the production and bioactivity of PGE2. Growth factors such as IGF-I increase cox-2 expression by several complementary mechanisms; hence, decreased cox-2 activity may play a role in the remarkably low mortality from "Western" cancers enjoyed by Third World cultures in which systemic growth factor activity was minimized by quasi-vegan diets complemented by leanness and excellent muscle insulin sensitivity. Practical strategies for achieving a modest degree of calorie restriction may also have potential for down-regulating cox-2 expression while decreasing cancer risk. Soy isoflavones, linked to reduced cancer risk in Asian epidemiology, may suppress cox-2 induction by activating ERbeta. In aggregate, these considerations suggest that a comprehensive lifestyle strategy targeting cox-2 expression and bioactivity may have tremendous potential for cancer prevention.
    Medical Hypotheses 01/2012; 78(1):45-57. DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2011.09.039 · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: COMBAT SPORTS ARE CATEGORIZED INTO WEIGHT CLASSES INTENDED TO PROMOTE FAIR COMPETITION BY MATCHING OPPONENTS OF EQUAL STATURE AND BODY MASS. MANY ATHLETES AIM TO COMPETE AT THE LIGHTEST WEIGHT POSSIBLE IN THE BELIEF THAT IT WILL OFFER A COMPETITIVE EDGE OVER OPPONENTS. CONSEQUENTLY, COMBAT ATHLETES OFTEN RELY ON ACUTE AND CHRONIC DEHYDRATION AND RESTRICTED ENERGY INTAKE TO MAKE WEIGHT. IN CONTRAST, THIS ARTICLE OUTLINES KEY PRINCIPLES FROM EXERCISE METABOLISM AND NUTRITION THAT COMBAT ATHLETES CAN EMPLOY TO MORE GRADUALLY MAKE WEIGHT AND THEREFORE AVOID THE NEGATIVE HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH TRADITIONAL WEIGHT-MAKING STRATEGIES.
    Strength and conditioning journal 11/2011; 33(6):25-39. DOI:10.1519/SSC.0b013e318231bb64 · 0.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we compared the effects of endurance training in the fasted state (F) vs. the fed state [ample carbohydrate intake (CHO)] on exercise-induced intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and glycogen utilization during a 6-wk period of a hypercaloric (∼+30% kcal/day) fat-rich diet (HFD; 50% of kcal). Healthy male volunteers (18-25 yrs) received a HFD in conjunction with endurance training (four times, 60-90 min/wk) either in F (n = 10) or with CHO before and during exercise sessions (n = 10). The control group (n = 7) received a HFD without training and increased body weight by ∼3 kg (P < 0.001). Before and after a HFD, the subjects performed a 2-h constant-load bicycle exercise test in F at ∼70% maximal oxygen uptake rate. A HFD, both in the absence (F) or presence (CHO) of training, elevated basal IMCL content by ∼50% in type I and by ∼75% in type IIa fibers (P < 0.05). Independent of training in F or CHO, a HFD, as such, stimulated exercise-induced net IMCL breakdown by approximately twofold in type I and by approximately fourfold in type IIa fibers. Furthermore, exercise-induced net muscle glycogen breakdown was not significantly affected by a HFD. It is concluded that a HFD stimulates net IMCL degradation by increasing basal IMCL content during exercise in type I and especially IIa fibers. Furthermore, a hypercaloric HFD provides adequate amounts of carbohydrates to maintain high muscle glycogen content during training and does not impair exercise-induced muscle glycogen breakdown.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 05/2011; 111(1):108-16. DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.01459.2010 · 3.43 Impact Factor