Detection and quantification of mRNA in single human polar bodies: a minimally invasive test of gene expression during oogenesis.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Women and Infants Hospital, Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, 101 Dudley Street, Providence, RI 02905, USA.
Molecular Human Reproduction (Impact Factor: 3.48). 12/2010; 16(12):938-43. DOI: 10.1093/molehr/gaq077
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Proteins and mRNA produced in oogenesis support embryonic development until the zygotic transition, 3 days after fertilization. Since polar bodies can be biopsied with little if any harm to the oocyte, we tested the hypothesis that mRNA originating from expression in the meiotic oocyte is present and detectable in a single polar body prior to insemination. Human oocytes were obtained from patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Immature oocytes were cultured overnight and inspected the following day for maturation. Metaphase II oocytes underwent polar body biopsy followed by reverse transcription without RNA isolation. Sibling oocytes were similarly prepared. Complementary DNA from all samples were pre-amplified over 15 cycles for candidate genes using selective primers. Real-time PCR was performed to detect and quantify relative single-cell gene expression. Polar body mRNA was detected in 11 of 12 candidate genes. Transcripts that were present in greater abundance in the oocyte were more likely to be detected in qPCR replicates from single polar bodies. Pre-amplification of cDNA synthesized without RNA isolation can facilitate the quantitative detection of mRNA in single human polar bodies.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To confirm that aneuploidy candidate genes are detectable in the first polar body (PB1) of MII oocytes and to investigate the age-dependent molecular changes in PB1. Aged (12-to 15-mo-old) and young (2-mo-old) mice were administered pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). MII oocytes were obtained and the first PB was removed. mRNA from each PB and its sibling oocyte was reverse transcribed. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the expression of six genes (BUB1, CDC20, Filia, MCAK, SGOL1, SMC1A) in single PB. We first demonstrated that detection and quantification of transcripts associated with aneuploidy in single mouse oocyte and sibling PB1 is possible and the relative abundance of mRNA transcripts in a single PB faithfully reflects the relative abundance of that transcript in its sibling oocyte. We further found that transcript levels were significantly lower in aged PBs compared with young PBs (P<0.05). Our results suggest that the detection and analysis of polar body mRNA may provide insight in age-related aneuploidy in oocyte. This analysis is a novel concept to investigate the genesis of chromosome abnormality and could potentially assist in the characterization of mechanisms underlying key molecular origin of female meiotic aneuploidy, which would be of great scientific and clinical value.
    Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 03/2014; 31(6). DOI:10.1007/s10815-014-0210-7 · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depending on cell type and experimental design. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate expression stability of candidate reference genes for a specific experimental condition before employing them as internal controls. In acknowledgment of the importance of seasonal effects on oocyte gene expression, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of expression levels of ten well-known reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, GUSB, HIST1H2AG, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL15, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) using oocytes collected from different categories of dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer. A normalization factor was provided for cattle (RPL15, PPIA and GUSB) and buffaloes (YWHAZ, GUSB and GAPDH) based on the expression of the three most stable reference genes in each species. Normalization of non-reference target genes by these reference genes was shown to be considerably different from normalization by less stable reference genes, further highlighting the need for careful selection of internal controls. Therefore, due to the high variability of reference genes among experimental groups, we conclude that data normalized by internal controls can be misleading and should be compared to not normalized data or to data normalized by an external control in order to better interpret the biological relevance of gene expression analysis.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e93287. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093287 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade the technology to characterize transcription during embryogenesis has progressed from estimating a single transcript to a reliable description of the entire transcriptome. Northern blots were followed by sequencing ESTs, quantitative real time PCR, cDNA arrays, custom oligo arrays, and more recently, deep sequencing. The amount of information that can be generated is overwhelming. The challenge now is how to glean information from these vast data sets that can be used to understand development and to improve methods for creating and culturing embryos in vitro, and for reducing reproductive loss. The use of ESTs permitted the identification of SPP1 as an oviductal component that could reduce polyspermy. Microarrays identified LDL and NMDA as components to replace BSA in embryo culture media. Deep sequencing implicated arginine, glycine, and folate as components that should be adjusted in our current culture system, and identified a characteristic of embryo metabolism that is similar to cancer and stem cells. Not only will these characterizations aid in improving in vitro production of embryos, but will also be useful for identifying, or creating conditions for donor cells that will be more likely to result in normal development of cloned embryos. The easily found targets have been identified, and now more sophisticated methods are being employed to advance our understanding of embryogenesis. Here the technology to study the global transcriptome is reviewed followed by specific examples of how the technology has been used to understand and improve porcine embryogenesis both in vitro and in vivo.
    Animal Reproduction Science 09/2014; 149(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2014.04.017 · 1.58 Impact Factor


Available from