Experimental design as a tool to evaluate chlorogenic and caffeic acids extracted from Cecropia glaziovii Sneth.
ABSTRACT The effects of different parameters, including ethanol concentration, time of drug:solvent contact, temperature and the presence of a preservative, on chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CFA) yields in Cecropia glaziovii Sneth extracts were investigated using an experimental design. In order to quantify the phenolic acids in these extracts a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated. Extracts with 80% ethanol presented a higher CGA content, but low amounts of CFA. Extracts with 20% ethanol showed a higher CFA concentration, but a sharp reduction in CGA extraction yield. The presence of a preservative, under the same extraction conditions, resulted in a slight difference or no difference in the CGA and CFA extraction yields. When the temperature was controlled at refrigerator or room temperature, a slight alteration in the concentrations of the phenolics studied was observed. The present approach can be applied in order to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of C. glaziovii Sneth extracts based on CGA or CFA extraction yield as a chemical marker.
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ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol (Cecropiaceae) is a plant extensively used for the empirical treatment of type 2 diabetes in México. Although some of its hypoglycemic principles have been described, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the anti-diabetic mechanisms of Cecropia obtusifolia aqueous extract (CAE) and its active compound chlorogenic acid (CGA). Non-toxic concentrations of CAE and CGA were assayed on the adipogenesis and 2-NBDglucose uptake in 3T3-F442A murine adipocytes. Added to adipogenic medium, CAE 70 microg/ml induced a modest increment (20%) in 3T3 adipogenesis whereas CGA did not affect adipogenesis at any of the tested concentrations (0.1-100 microM). Both preparations stimulated 2-NBDG uptake in adipocytes by 51% (CAE) and 176% (CGA) in the absence of insulin, and by 174% (CAE) and 404% (CGA) in the presence of the hormone. CAE and CGA also stimulated the 2-NBDG uptake in insulin-resistant 3T3 adipocytes by 35% and 141%, respectively, compared with the incorporation shown by insulin-sensitive adipocytes stimulated by the hormone. The potency of CGA to stimulate 2-NBDG uptake was comparable to the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone. Cecropia obtusifolia and CGA exert their anti-diabetic effects stimulating glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant adipocytes without appreciable pro-adipogenic effects.Journal of Ethnopharmacology 10/2008; 120(3):458-64. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Kinetic data are reported describing the stability of various classes of polyphenolic antioxidants in an apple juice enriched in these compounds as a function of storage temperature and oxygen concentration. The most thermally sensitive compounds were the various quercetin glycosides and epicatechin, whereas phloridzin and chlorogenic acid were more stable. The quercetin glycosides showed differences in their stability: quercetin galactoside approximately quercetin rhamnoside > quercetin glucoside/rutinoside > quercetin arabinoside. The effect of the presence of oxygen on the degradation rates was clear for only quercetin and to a lesser extent for epicatechin. Accelerated shelf-life testing of enriched apple juice during 4 days at 80 degrees C showed decreases in the antioxidant activity of 20-40%. The parameters obtained were used to predict the stability at different storage conditions. Calculations showed that polyphenolic antioxidants and antioxidant activity of enriched apple juice will be quite stable at ambient or refrigerated storage conditions up to half a year.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2005; 53(4):1073-80. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The stability of five major phenolics, namely (−)-epicatechin (EC), procyanidin B2 (PC-B2), chlorogenic acid (ChA), hyperoside (HP) and isoquercitrin (IQ), in hawthorn fruits and a canned hawthorn drink were evaluated during 6 months of storage in the dark at three different temperatures (4, 23 and 40°C). HPLC with a diode-array detector was used to determine the contents of the individual compounds. The results showed that the studied phenolics in the hawthorn fruits and the drink were both stable at 4°C and relatively unstable at 23 and 40°C with varied extents of degradation. At room temperature (23°C), marked degradations of EC and PC-B2 were observed in both the fruits and the drink with around 50% and 30% decrease after a 6-month storage, respectively. A more significant decrease of the phenolics was observed at 40°C, especially for EC and PC-B2, which were almost completely degraded after a 6-month storage. HP, IQ and ChA were relatively stable at 23°C, but unstable at 40°C. Therefore, low-temperature storage is recommended for maintaining the quality and efficacy of hawthorn fruits and its preparations.Food Chemistry - FOOD CHEM. 01/2006; 98(3):426-430.
Este arquivo apresenta uma reunião de estudos sobre a planta, para facilitar suas pesquisas. À medida
do possível, iremos acrescentar outros. Conteúdo voltado para profissionais da área médica.
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2011 Jan 5;54(1):58-66.
Experimental design as a tool to evaluate chlorogenic and caffeic acids extracted from Cecropia
Arend DP, dos Santos TC, Sonaglio D, Dos Santos AL, Reginatto FH, de Campos AM.
Laboratório de Farmacotécnica, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Centro de Ciências da
Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brazil.
The effects of different parameters, including ethanol concentration, time of drug:solvent contact,
temperature and the presence of a preservative, on chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CFA)
yields in Cecropia glaziovii Sneth extracts were investigated using an experimental design. In order to
quantify the phenolic acids in these extracts a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array
detection (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated. Extracts with 80% ethanol presented a
higher CGA content, but low amounts of CFA. Extracts with 20% ethanol showed a higher CFA
concentration, but a sharp reduction in CGA extraction yield. The presence of a preservative, under the
same extraction conditions, resulted in a slight difference or no difference in the CGA and CFA
extraction yields. When the temperature was controlled at refrigerator or room temperature, a slight
alteration in the concentrations of the phenolics studied was observed. The present approach can be
applied in order to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of C. glaziovii Sneth extracts
based on CGA or CFA extraction yield as a chemical marker.
Lett Appl Microbiol. 2010 Aug;51(2):143-8. .
In vitro antiherpes effects of a C-glycosylflavonoid-enriched fraction of Cecropia glaziovii Sneth.
Silva IT, Costa GM, Stoco PH, Schenkel EP, Reginatto FH, Simões CM.
Laboratório de Virologia Aplicada, Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de
Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário Trindade, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil.
AIMS: To investigate the in vitro antiherpes effects of the crude aqueous extract obtained from
Cecropia glaziovii leaves and their related fractions, the n-butanol fraction (n-BuOH) and the C-
glycosylflavonoid-enriched fraction (MeOH(AMB)), and to determine the viral multiplication step(s)
upon which this C-glycosylflavonoid-enriched fraction acts.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The antiviral activity was evaluated against human herpes virus types 1 and 2
(HHV-1, HHV-2) by plaque reduction assay. The mode of action of the most active fraction was
investigated by a set of assays, and the results demonstrated that MeOH(AMB) fraction exerts anti-
herpes action by the reduction of viral infectivity (only against HHV-2); by the inhibition of virus entry
into cells; by the inhibition of cell-to-cell virus spread as well as by the impaired levels of envelope
proteins of HHV-1. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photo-diode array (PDA)
analysis showed that the C-glycosylflavonoids are the major constituents of this fraction.
CONCLUSIONS: These data showed that the MeOH(AMB) fraction has an antiviral activity against HHV
types 1 and 2. The C-glycosylflavonoids are the major constituents of this fraction, which suggests that
they could be one of the compounds responsible for the detected anti-herpes activity.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The MeOH(AMB) fraction can be regarded as a
phytopharmaceutical candidate for the treatment of herpetic infections.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 6;130(1):93-7. Epub 2010 Apr 24.
Gluconeogenesis inhibition and phytochemical composition of two Cecropia species.
Andrade-Cetto A, Vázquez RC.
Laboratorio de Etnofarmacología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,
Apartado Postal 70-359, Coyoacan, 04511 México DF, Mexico. email@example.com
AIM OF THE STUDY: Cecropia obtusifolia and Cecropia peltata are plants highly used by the Mexican
diabetic population to treat type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have assessed their hypoglycemic effect
in animal models and in type 2 diabetic patients. Both plants contain cholorogenic acid, an inhibitor of
glucose-6-phosphate translocase. In this work, we found a mechanism by which to understand how
these plants could produce the observed hypoglycemic effect according to their traditional use. To test
the hypothesis that targeting gluconeogenesis with an inhibitor of Gl-6-P translocase could result in a
reduction of hepatic glucose production, we examined the effects of Cecropia obtusifolia and Cecropia
peltata on gluconeogenesis (in vivo) and the activity of the enzyme (in vitro).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts of the two plants were analyzed by HPLC to confirm their
phytochemical composition. To test the inhibition of gluconeogenesis in vivo, a pyruvate tolerance test
(2g/kg) was performed in 18-h fasted n5-STZ rats. The effect of the extracts (Cecropia obtusifolia and
Cecropia peltata 150 mg/kg) on glucose-6-phosphatase activity was assayed in vitro with intact rat
RESULTS: Using HPLC-DAD, we confirmed that the main components of both species are chlorogenic
acid and isoorientin. Diabetic rats treated with the extracts showed a lower glucose curve. The tested
extracts were able to reduce the increase in the glucose blood level, and they inhibited the glucose-6-P
activity with IC(50)s of 224 microg/ml for Cecropia obtusifolia aqueous, 160 microg/ml for Cecropia
obtusifolia butanolic, 146 microg/ml for Cecropia peltata aqueous and 150 microg/ml for Cecropia
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the experiments presented here suggest that the administration of both
plants can improve glycemic control by blocking the hepatic glucose output, especially in the fasting
state. These data support the traditional use of the plants as "agua de uso", a cold infusion of the plant
consumed over the course of a day.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Apr 21;128(3):629-33. Epub 2010 Jan 11.
Hypoglycemic effects of Cecropia pachystachya in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Aragão DM, Guarize L, Lanini J, da Costa JC, Garcia RM, Scio E.
Departamento de Bioquímica - ICB - Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitário,
Martelos, CEP 36036 900, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaves of Cecropia pachystachya are described in the folk
medicine as possessing antitusive, expectorant, antiasthmatic and hypoglycemic effects.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of methanolic extract
from the leaves of Cecropia pachystachya. The total amount of phenolic and flavonoids compounds
was determined and the qualitative composition of the extract was analyzed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hypoglycemic effect of the extract was tested in normal, glucose
loading and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH free radical
scavenging and reduction power assays. The total amount of phenolic and flavonoids compounds was
determined by Folin-Denis and AlCl(3) reagent method, respectively. The qualitative composition of
the extract was analyzed using a HPLC-DAD system.
RESULTS: The glucose tolerance test showed that in diabetic rats, the extract caused a significant
hypoglycemic effect with a blood glucose reduction of 68% after 12h. The administration of the extract
in alloxan-induced diabetic rats also produced a significant reduction in the blood glucose levels at all
points being more pronounced at 90min (reduction of 60%). After 120min, no significant difference
was observed between the blood levels of the rats treated with the extract and those treated with the
standard drugs (metformin and glibenclamide). The extract also presented relevant antioxidant activity
with IC50=3.1microg/ml (DPPH assay) and EC50=10.8microg/ml (reduction power). Results were
compared with the reference antioxidants quercetin, rutin, and ascorbic acid. The content of
flavonoids was 83mg/g plant and that of phenolics was 326mg/g plant. Chlorogenic acid and the C-
glycosylated flavones, orientin and isoorientin, were identified in the extract.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the findings showed that the folk medicinal plant Cecropia pachystachya
possesses hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects which confirmed the traditional use of the plant in the
treatment of diabetes. Chlorogenic acid and the C-glycosylated flavonoids may explain these activities.
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010 Jul;29(7):601-6. Epub 2010 Jan 5.
Effects of Cecropia pachystachya and Larrea divaricata aqueous extracts in mice.
Bigliani MC, Grondona E, Zunino PM, Ponce AA.
Cátedra de Fisiología Humana, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba,
Our studies were performed to investigate the effects of the aqueous extracts of Cecropia
pachystachya and Larrea divaricata. These plants are used in folkloric medicine in infusion and were
administered orally (0.76 g/kg) to male Albino Swiss mice for 16 days, on drink intake, organ
weight/body weight (OW/BW x 100) ratio, histology, broqueoalveolar fluid (BALF) and elevated plus-
maze (EPM). Feeding as well as body weight were unaffected by the consumption of these extracts.
There were no signs of toxicity in BALF, morbidity or mortality during the study. C. pachystachya
caused an increase in relative kidney OW/BW (p <or= .05 vs control). The macroscopic and microscopic
morphologic analyses of the organs were not altered by administration of these plants. A non-
anxiolytic-like activity of an aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of C. pachystachya and L.
divaricata in EPM was observed. We conclude that the crude aqueous extracts of leaves tested on
mice orally did not produce signs of toxicity or behavioral changes in routine histological and clinical
evaluation. However, knowledge of the biological activity of many herbal medicine used in Latin
American is still deficient and more studies will be needed to elucidate the possible toxic effects.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Dec 8;120(3):458-64. Epub 2008 Sep 27.
Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol and its active compound, chlorogenic acid, stimulate 2-NBDglucose
uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant 3T3 adipocytes.
Alonso-Castro AJ, Miranda-Torres AC, González-Chávez MM, Salazar-Olivo LA.
Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Biología Molecular, San Luis
Potosí, SLP, México.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol (Cecropiaceae) is a plant
extensively used for the empirical treatment of type 2 diabetes in México. Although some of its
hypoglycemic principles have been described, their mechanisms of action remain unclear.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-diabetic mechanisms of Cecropia obtusifolia aqueous
extract (CAE) and its active compound chlorogenic acid (CGA).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Non-toxic concentrations of CAE and CGA were assayed on the
adipogenesis and 2-NBDglucose uptake in 3T3-F442A murine adipocytes.
RESULTS: Added to adipogenic medium, CAE 70 microg/ml induced a modest increment (20%) in 3T3
adipogenesis whereas CGA did not affect adipogenesis at any of the tested concentrations (0.1-100
microM). Both preparations stimulated 2-NBDG uptake in adipocytes by 51% (CAE) and 176% (CGA) in
the absence of insulin, and by 174% (CAE) and 404% (CGA) in the presence of the hormone. CAE and
CGA also stimulated the 2-NBDG uptake in insulin-resistant 3T3 adipocytes by 35% and 141%,
respectively, compared with the incorporation shown by insulin-sensitive adipocytes stimulated by the
hormone. The potency of CGA to stimulate 2-NBDG uptake was comparable to the anti-diabetic drug
CONCLUSION: Cecropia obtusifolia and CGA exert their anti-diabetic effects stimulating glucose uptake
in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant adipocytes without appreciable pro-adipogenic effects.
Pharmazie. 2008 May;63(5):398-404.
The effect of Cecropia glazioui SNETHLAGE on the physical and neurobehavioral development of
Gerenutti M, Prestes AF, Silva MG, Del Fiol Fde S, Franco YO, Venancio PC, Groppo FC.
University of Sorocaba, Pharmacology Department, Sorocaba, Brazil. firstname.lastname@example.org
This study aimed to determine the LD50, toxic effects on organogenesis/fetal-development, physical
aspects, and developmental/neurobehavioral reflexes of litters previously exposed to Cecropia glazioui
SNETHL (Cg) extract during the entire gestational period. Swiss mice were submitted to doses of 0.5,
1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 g/Kg/p.o. Female rats received 1.0 g/Kg/day of Cg extract (G1, n = 10) or 1.0
mL/Kg/day of deionized water (G2, n = 10) during pregnancy. The number of successful gestations,
pregnant females weight and born/dead-born offsprings were evaluated. Physical development
(offspring weight; fluff and hair appearing; ear unsticking and opening; incisor teeth eruption; eyes
opening; testis descent; vagina opening; rearing frequency; uprightness latency and negative geotaxis)
and the sleeping time (30 mg/Kg/i.p. sodium pentobarbital assay) were also observed. Open field assay
evaluated the developmental/neurobehavioral reflexes of pups. LD50 was higher than 5.0 g/Kg. The
extract did not affect the gestation number, born/dead-born offspring number and the female weight
during pregnancy. The weight and the physical development of both genders pups were not affected
(p > 0.05), but the uprightness latency and the negative geotaxis reflexes were enhanced and the
rearing frequency decreased (p < 0.05). Ambulation, cleaning activity, sleeping time, and immobility
were not affected (p > 0.05). We concluded that Cg extract showed low toxicity to pregnant rats and
Phytomedicine. 2008 Jun;15(6-7):462-9. Epub 2008 May 6.
Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by a standardized aqueous extract of Cecropia glaziovii Sneth and
Souccar C, Cysneiros RM, Tanae MM, Torres LM, Lima-Landman MT, Lapa AJ.
Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Natural
Products Section, 04044-020 Rua Três de Maio 100, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Cecropia glazioui Sneth (Cecropiaceae) is used in folk medicine in tropical and subtropical Latin
America as cardiotonic, diuretic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic. The
hypotensive/antihypertensive activity of the plant aqueous extract (AE) and isolated butanolic fraction
(BuF) has been confirmed and putatively related to calcium channels blockade in vascular smooth
musculature [Lapa, A.J., Lima-Landman, M.T.R., Cysneiros, R.M, Borges, A.C.R., Souccar, C., Barreta,
I.P., Lima, T.C.M., 1999. The Brazilian folk medicine program to validate medicinal plants - a topic in
new antihypertensive drug research. In: Hostettman, K., Gupta, M.P., Marston, A. (Eds.), Proceedings
Volume, IOCD/CYTED Symposium, Panamá City, Panamá, 23-26 February 1997. Chemistry, Biological
and Pharmacological Properties of Medicinal Plants from the Americas. Harwood Academic Publishers,
Amsterdam, pp. 185-196; Lima-Landman, M.T., Borges, A.C., Cysneiros, R.M., De Lima, T.C., Souccar,
C., Lapa, A.J., 2007. Antihypertensive effect of a standardized aqueous extract of Cecropia glaziovii
Sneth in rats: an in vivo approach to the hypotensive mechanism. Phytomedicine 14, 314-320].
Bronchodilation and antidepressant-like activities of both AE and BuF have been also shown
[Delarcina, S., Lima-Landman, M.T., Souccar, C., Cysneiros, R.M., Tanae, M.M., Lapa, A.J., 2007.
Inhibition of histamine-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs treated with Cecropia glaziovi Sneth and
correlation with the in vitro activity in tracheal muscles. Phytomedicine 14, 328-332; Rocha, F.F., Lima-
Landman, M.T., Souccar, C., Tanae, M.M., De Lima, T.C., Lapa, A.J., 2007. Antidepressant-like effect of
Cecropia glazioui Sneth and its constituents -in vivo and in vitro characterization of the underlying
mechanism. Phytomedicine 14, 396-402]. This study reports the antiulcer and antisecretory gastric
acid activities of the plant AE, its BuF and isolated compounds with the possible mechanism involved.
Both AE and BuF were assayed on gastric acid secretion of pylorus-ligated mice, on acute models of
gastric mucosal lesions, and on rabbit gastric H(+), K(+)-ATPase preparations. Intraduodenal injection
of AE or BuF (0.5-2.0g/kg, i.d) produced a dose-related decrease of the basal gastric acid secretion in 4-
h pylorus-ligated mice. At 1.0g/kg, BuF decreased the volume (28%) and total acidity (33%) of the basal
acid secretion, and reversed the histamine (2.5mg/kg, s.c.)- or bethanecol (1.0mg/kg, s.c.)-induced acid
secretion to basal values, indicating inhibition of the gastric proton pump. Pretreatment of mice with
the BuF (0.05-0.5g/kg, p.o.) protected against gastric mucosal lesions induced by 75% ethanol,
indomethacin (30mg/kg, s.c.) or restraint at 4 degrees C. BuF also decreased the gastric H(+), K(+)-
ATPase activity in vitro proportionately to the concentration (IC(50)=58.8microg/ml). The compounds
isolated from BuF, consisting mainly of cathechins, procyanidins and flavonoids [Tanae, M.M., Lima-
Landman, M.T.R., De Lima, T.C.M., Souccar, C., Lapa, A.J., 2007. Chemical standardization of the
aqueous extract of Cecropia glaziovii Sneth endowed with antihypertensive, bronchodilator, antacid
secretion and antidepressant-like activities. Phytomedicine 14, 309-313], inhibited the in vitro gastric
H(+), K(+)-ATPase activity at equieffective concentrations to that of BuF. The results indicate that C.
glazioui constituents inhibit the gastric proton pump; this effect may account for the effective
antisecretory and antiulcer activities of the standardized plant extract.
Planta Med. 2008 Feb;74(3):215-20. Epub 2008 Feb 8.
Anti-inflammatory and apoptotic activities of pomolic acid isolated from Cecropia pachystachya.
Schinella G, Aquila S, Dade M, Giner R, Recio Mdel C, Spegazzini E, de Buschiazzo P, Tournier H, Ríos JL.
Cátedra de Farmacología Básica, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CIC
Provincia de Buenos Aires, La Plata, Argentina.
The dichloromethane extract and pomolic acid ( 5) obtained from leaves of Cecropia pachystachya
both reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice. Interestingly, while the triterpenoid inhibited
the in vivo production of interleukin-1beta by 39 %, it had no effect on tumour necrosis factor-alpha
production. We also demonstrated that both the dichloromethane extract and 5 inhibited the viability
of human polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. The PMN
membrane integrity was determined with the aid of flow cytometry by means of the exclusion of
propidium iodide as assay. Although the cell membrane integrity was altered, neither the extract nor 5
produced cellular necrosis. Moreover, the development of hypodiploid nuclei and DNA fragmentation
in the PMN cells were both dependent on dose and time. Finally, in the annexin V-FITC binding assay,
compound 5 increased the total of apoptotic cells by 42 % at 100 microM and by 71 % at 200 microM
with respect to the control group. In conclusion, both the dichloromethane extract of ambay and
isolated compound 5 inhibit the viability of PMN cells through apoptosis. Since they can regulate
human neutrophil functions in this way, it is likely that these substances can also limit inflammation.
Z Naturforsch C. 2007 Sep-Oct;62(9-10):701-9.
Seasonal and intraspecific varation of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in Cecropia glaziovi sneth.
Leaves from native and cultivated specimens.
Luenga-Caicedo PE, Braga FC, Brandão GC, Braga de Oliveira A.
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Farmacia, Ciudad
Universitaria, Bogotá, Colombia.
Cecropia glaziovi Sneth. (syn. C. glaziovii, C. glazioui) (Cecropiaceae) is a South American medicinal
plant whose antihypertensive activity is attributed to its flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents. The
seasonal and intraspecific variations of these two classes of compounds in C. glaziovi leaves were
assayed by spectrophotometry in samples of young and mature leaves collected from native,
cultivated and micropropagated trees in the dry and rainy periods of the year. The total flavonoid and
proanthocyanidin contents ranged from (0.64 +/- 0.21)% to (3.44 +/- 0.45)% and (2.23 +/- 0.92)% to
(5.36 +/- 0.95)%, respectively, among the assayed populations. The flavonoid contents in native plants
did not differ statistically between young and mature leaves within the same season, whereas it was
higher in both young and mature leaves collected in the dry compared to those collected in the rainy
period. For cultivated specimens, the results pointed to higher contents in the dry season, whereas no
significant difference was observed for leaves of micropropagated (clone) plants collected in both
periods. For the assayed populations, higher proanthocyanidin contents were found in the dry season,
excepting the micropropagated (clone) plants, whose contents did not differ significantly between the
dry and the rainy periods. Leaves of micropropagated (clone) and cultivated specimens showed less
intraspecific variation in the flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents than those from native trees.
These features suggest that, as expected, cultivation of C. glaziovi is of great interest providing raw
herbal material of better uniform quality
Phytomedicine. 2007 Jun;14(6):396-402. Epub 2007 May 10.
Antidepressant-like effect of Cecropia glazioui Sneth and its constituents - in vivo and in vitro
characterization of the underlying mechanism.
Rocha FF, Lima-Landman MT, Souccar C, Tanae MM, De Lima TC, Lapa AJ.
Department of Pharmacology, Natural Products Section, UNIFESP/Escola Paulista de Medicina, 04044-
020, Rua 03 de Maio 100, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
The present study aimed to characterize the antidepressant-like effect of a standardized aqueous
extract (AE) of Cecropia glazioui Sneth and its purified fractions on in vivo (forced swimming test), ex
vivo (hippocampal monoamines levels) and in vitro (serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine uptake)
tests, searching for the active principles and the underlying mechanisms of action. Treatment with AE,
or with its butanolic fraction (BuF), the latter rich in catechins, procyanidins and flavonoids, reduced
the immobility of rats in the forced swimming test indicating an antidepressant-like effect. Biochemical
analysis of the hippocampal neurotransmitters in BuF-treated rats showed significant increase in
monoamines levels. BuF and six of its purified constituents inhibited the uptake of [(3)H]-serotonin,
[(3)H]-dopamine and [(3)H]-noradrenaline by synaptosomes of different brain regions. Catechin,
catechin (4alpha-->8) ent-catechin (Procyanidin B3 isomer) and epicatechin (4beta-->8) epicatechin
(Procyanidin B2) were the most active compounds. Comparatively, the uptake of [(3)H]-noradrenaline
was the most affected. These results show that the antidepressant-like effect promoted by C. glazioui
extract is most likely due to the blockade of the monoamines uptake in the CNS.
Phytomedicine. 2007 May;14(5):314-20. Epub 2007 Apr 18.
Antihypertensive effect of a standardized aqueous extract of Cecropia glaziovii Sneth in rats: an in
vivo approach to the hypotensive mechanism.
Lima-Landman MT, Borges AC, Cysneiros RM, De Lima TC, Souccar C, Lapa AJ.
Natural Products Section, Department of Pharmacology, UNIFESP/ Escola Paulista de Medicina, 04044-
020 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Cecropia glaziovii Sneth is a common tree at the Southeastern Brazilian coast. As many other species of
the genus, it shares the reputed folk use to treat heart failure, cough, asthma and bronchitis. The plant
has been cultivated under controlled conditions and the 2% aqueous extract (AE) prepared with the
dried leaves was standardized by its chemical contents on catechins, flavonoids and procyanidins. The
present paper reports the antihypertensive activity of AE and of n-butanol fraction (BuF), an enriched
semi-purified butanolic fraction used to isolate the main chemical constituents. Oral administration of
AE and BuF induced hypotension in normotensive rats. The effect of AE (0.5 g/kg/bi, p.o.) was time and
dose-dependent peaking at 2-3 weeks after daily administration. BuF was faster but not more active
than AE. Both extracts decreased the hypertension of spontaneous hypertensive rats, the
hypertension induced in rats by L-NAME treatment and that induced by constriction of one renal
artery. The antihypertensive effect was maintained for as long as 60 days of treatment and was
reversible upon drug washout at the same rate of its establishment. Acute i.v. administration of BuF to
anesthetized rats induced a fast short-lasting hypotension and inhibited the pressor responses to
noradrenaline, angiotensin I and angiotensin II by 40%. These results were indirect indications that the
hypotension induced by AE is not related to ACE inhibition, increased NO synthesis, or specific
blockade of alpha1 and AT1 receptors. It can be suggested that BuF interferes with the calcium
handling mechanisms in smooth muscle cells and neurons. Intravenous injection of five out of nine
compounds isolated from BuF produced immediate but short-lasting hypotension that does not
correlate with the onset of the hypotension after oral treatment. This finding suggests that they may
not be the compounds directly responsible for the delayed and sustained hypotension after per os
administration of AE. The many compounds isolated from AE are under evaluation to determine its
pharmacokinetics, mechanisms of action and interactions necessary to yield the plant effect. Although
its mechanism is still unknown, AE seems to be an effective and safe antihypertensive phytomedicine.
Phytomedicine. 2007 May;14(5):309-13. Epub 2007 Apr 16.
Chemical standardization of the aqueous extract of Cecropia glaziovii Sneth endowed with
antihypertensive, bronchodilator, antiacid secretion and antidepressant-like activities.
Tanae MM, Lima-Landman MT, De Lima TC, Souccar C, Lapa AJ.
Natural Products Section, Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola
Paulista de Medicina, 04044-020 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
This study reports the extraction process and standardization of the aqueous extract (AE) of a Cecropia
species aiming its pharmacological characterization as a phytomedicine to be used in primary health
care. The plant was originally collected in its environment, and was thereafter specially cultivated for
the present work. To standardize the plant AE, several 2.0% tea of the dried leaves were prepared
under controlled conditions and freeze dried. The AE (20% yield) was partitioned with n-butanol
yielding the butanolic fraction (BuF; 1% yield). The activity of AE on vital organ functions
(cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous system) was determined in vivo. The
effects of AE were compared to those of BuF in the same models and the relative potency determined.
BuF was further evaluated in representative in vitro models to assess possible mechanisms of action.
Chemical constituents of BuF were isolated in preparative HPLC columns yielding 10 highly purified
compounds chemically identified as catechins (2), procyanidins (4), flavonoids (2), mixed sugars (1) and
chlorogenic acid. All the compounds were identified by chemical analytic instrumentation (13C-NMR,
1H-NMR, LC-MS). Their relative concentrations in AE were ca 12% catechins, 19% procyanidins and
19% flavonoids. The pharmacological activity of the standardized AE is reported in accompanying
Phytomedicine. 2007 May;14(5):321-7. Epub 2007 Apr 12.
ACE activity during the hypotension produced by standardized aqueous extract of Cecropia glaziovii
Sneth: a comparative study to captopril effects in rats.
Ninahuaman MF, Souccar C, Lapa AJ, Lima-Landman MT.
Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Department of Pharmacology, Natural Products Section, 04044-
020 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
To evaluate the effect of the standardized aqueous extract (AE) of Cecropia glaziovii Sneth on the
plasma angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE-EC 188.8.131.52) activity, rats were treated with a single dose
of AE (1 g/kg, p.o.) or repeatedly (0.5 g/kg/bid, p.o.) for 60 days. Captopril (50 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as
positive control on the same animals. The effects on the blood pressure were recorded directly from
the femoral artery (single dose), or indirectly by the tail cuff method (repeated doses) in conscious
rats. The plasma ACE activity was determined spectrofluorimetrically using Hypuril-Hystidine-Leucine
as substrate. The arterial blood pressure, heart rate and plasma ACE activity were not significantly
modified within 24 h after a single dose administration of AE. Comparatively, blood pressure in
captopril treated rats was reduced by 7-16% and heart rate was increased by 10-20% from 30 min to
24 h after drug administration. ACE activity after captopril presented a dual response: an immediate
inhibition peaking at 30 min and a slow reversal to 32% up-regulation after 24 h. To correlate the drug
effects upon repeated administration of either compound, normotensive rats were separated in three
groups: animals with high ACE (48.8+/-2.6 nmol/min/ml), intermediate ACE (39.4+/-1.4 nmol/min/ml)
and low ACE (23.5+/-0.6 nmol/min/ml) activity, significantly different among them. Repeated
treatment with AE reduced the mean systolic blood pressure (121.7+/-0.5 mm Hg) by 20 mm Hg after
14 days. The hypotension was reversed upon washout 60 days afterwards. Likely, repeated captopril
administration decreased blood pressure by 20 mm Hg throughout treatment in all groups. After 30
days treatment with AE (0.5 g/kg/bid, p.o.) the plasma ACE activity was unchanged in any experimental
group. After captopril (50 mg/kg/bid, p.o.) administration the plasma ACE activity was inhibited by 50%
within 1 h treatment but it was up-regulated by 120% after 12 h in all groups. It is concluded that the
hypotension produced by prolonged treatment with AE of C. glaziovii is unrelated to ACE inhibition.
Phytomedicine. 2007 May;14(5):328-32. Epub 2007 Feb 12.
Inhibition of histamine-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs treated with Cecropia glaziovi Sneth
and correlation with the in vitro activity in tracheal muscles.
Delarcina S, Lima-Landman MT, Souccar C, Cysneiros RM, Tanae MM, Lapa AJ.
Natural Products Section, Department of Pharmacology, UNIFESP/Escola Paulista de Medicina, 04044-
020, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
A standardized aqueous extract (AE) and a purified fraction (BuF) of Cecropia glaziovi Sneth leaves
were tested in unrestrained guinea pigs challenged with histamine. Changes of the respiratory
pressure and rate were recorded in a whole body plethysmograph before and after treatment. The
concentration of histamine necessary to produce bronchospasm was increased by five-fold following
administration of AE (1.0 g/kg p.o.), and by two-fold after treatment with the semi-purified
procyanidin/flavonoids enriched BuF (0.1 g/kg p.o.). Both effects were blocked by previous treatment
with propranolol (10.0 mg/kg i.p.). In vitro incubation of BuF (0.1-1.0 mg/ml) decreased by 13-55% the
maximal response of guinea pig tracheal muscle to histamine, without significant change of EC50. The
results confirmed old reports on the useful pulmonary effects of Cecropia extracts. The
bronchodilation observed in vivo seems to be related to beta-adrenergic activity observed in vitro only
with high concentrations of the purified extract
J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 22;111(3):636-40. Epub 2007 Jan 18.
Hypoglycemic effect of Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol aqueous extracts on type 2 diabetic patients.
Revilla-Monsalve MC, Andrade-Cetto A, Palomino-Garibay MA, Wiedenfeld H, Islas-Andrade S.
Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Metabólicas, UMAE Hospital de Cardiología C.M.N.
Siglo XXI, México D.F., Mexico. email@example.com
Cecropia obtusifolia is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine due to its reputed hypoglycemic
effect. During a period of 32 weeks, aqueous extracts of the leaves of this plant were administrated
daily to 12 recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, controlled only with diet and exercise. Serum
glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and insulin levels were determined every 15 days; HbA1c, ALT, AST
and ALKP were measured every month. A significant reduction of glucose was detected after 4 weeks
of administration but the reduction was significant and sustained after 18 weeks of administration.
The HbA1c was also significantly reduced after 6 weeks of treatment. No significant changes on
cholesterol, triglycerides ALT, AST, ALKP or insulin could be detected. No collateral effects were
observed. After suspending the administration of the extract, and a follow-up of 34 weeks, the glucose
and HbA1c levels increased reaching levels higher than the basal ones. It can be concluded that the
aqueous extracts of Cecropia obtusifolia have a significant hypoglycemic effect with no adverse effects
and that the mechanism of action is not brought about by stimulating the insulin secretion. The results
support the fact that the extracts of Cecropia obtusifolia have a great potential to be further
developed into a phytomedicine.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jun 15;106(1):90-6. Epub 2006 Jan 18.
Cardiotonic and sedative effects of Cecropia pachystachya Mart. (ambay) on isolated rat hearts and
Consolini AE, Ragone MI, Migliori GN, Conforti P, Volonté MG.
Cátedra de Farmacología de Farmacia, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias
Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata, Argentina.
Cecropia pachystachya Mart. is popularly called "ambay" and extensively used in herbal medicine of
South America for cough and asthma. In Argentina it grows in neotropical rainforest (Ntr C.p.) and in a
temperate region (Tp C.p.). In a previous work we showed their hypotensive properties with different
potency and toxicity, and now we studied the Tp C.p. effects in isolated heart from rats and central
effects of both plants on the open-field test for mice. Tp C.p. produced a positive inotropic effect on
isolated rat hearts, which was not affected by 1 microM propranolol, suggesting that it is not due to a
beta-adrenergic effect. In contrast, it was prevented by pretreatment with high [K](o) media, which
stimulates the Na,K-ATPase pump, suggesting an inhibition of the pump by "ambay", as digital do. In
the open-field test, both Ntr C.p. and Tp C.p. similarly decreased the spontaneous locomotion and
exploratory behavior of mice at doses between 180 and 600 mg/kg. Ntr C.p. potentiated the effect of 3
mg/kg diazepam to one similar to 10 mg/kg diazepam, but was not antagonized by 0.5 mg/kg
flumazenil. Amphetamine at 5 mg/kg prevented the sedative effect of Ntr C.p. Chromatographic
analysis showed that both plants have a qualitatively similar fingerprint but quantitatively differed in
at least three components. Although the purpose was not to identify them, both plants have at least
10 compounds. Two of them were in higher amount in Tp C.p. than in Ntr C.p., and then, they could be
responsible for the cardiovascular toxicity of Tp C.p. In conclusion, the results suggest that ambay has
cardiotonic and sedative properties. The sedative effect could be useful in cough treatment. The
extract resulted additive to benzodiazepines but it did not bind to the same site on GABA-A receptor,
and it was interfered by the dopamine release produced with amphetamine
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002 Jan-Feb;71(1-2):183-90.
Evaluation of the anxiolytic-like effects of Cecropia glazioui Sneth in mice.
Rocha FF, Lapa AJ, De Lima TC.
Laboratory of Neuropharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, Center of
Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina,
Florianopolis, SC 88039-900, Brazil.
Cecropia glazioui Sneth has been used in most Latin American countries
as an antihypertensive, cardiotonic, and antiasthmatic folk medicine. In
the cardiovascular studies to define its antihypertensive action it was
noteworthy that animals treated with the aqueous extract (AE) of C.
glazioui were much calmer than control animals. That observation
prompted the present study, aimed at an investigation of the effects of
AE and of two semipurified fractions on mouse behavior as evaluated in
the elevated plus-maze test (EPM). Male adult Swiss mice were treated
with AE (0.25-1 g/kg po) acutely (1 h) or repeatedly (24, 7, and 1.5 h
before the test). After repeated administration of AE, the frequency of
entries in the open arms of EPM was increased threefold. A similar
profile of action was observed after treatment with the butanolic
fraction (Fbut) but not with the aqueous fraction (Faq). These findings
suggest that the AE of C. glazioui promotes an anxiolytic-like effect in
mice. The active principles responsible for this action are present in
the less polar fraction of the extract, the main constituents of which
are flavonoids and terpenes, among other compounds.
Adaptado de: http://www.rain-tree.com/cecropia.htm
Species: palmata, peltata, obtusifolia