Article

IL-1RL2 and its ligands contribute to the cytokine network in psoriasis.

Amgen, Seattle, WA 98119, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 10/2010; 185(7):4354-62. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1000313
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated disease in European populations; it is characterized by inflammation and altered epidermal differentiation leading to redness and scaling. T cells are thought to be the main driver, but there is also evidence for an epidermal contribution. In this article, we show that treatment of mouse skin overexpressing the IL-1 family member, IL-1F6, with phorbol ester leads to an inflammatory condition with macroscopic and histological similarities to human psoriasis. Inflammatory cytokines thought to be important in psoriasis, such as TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-23, are upregulated in the mouse skin. These cytokines are induced by and can induce IL-1F6 and related IL-1 family cytokines. Inhibition of TNF or IL-23 inhibits the increased epidermal thickness, inflammation, and cytokine production. Blockade of IL-1F6 receptor also resolves the inflammatory changes in human psoriatic lesional skin transplanted onto immunodeficient mice. These data suggest a role for IL-1F family members in psoriasis.

0 Followers
 · 
146 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spondyloarthritis (SpA) represents a group of inflammatory rheumatic diseases that cluster within families and possess overlapping clinical features. The pathogenesis of SpA encompasses a complex array of genetic, immunological and environmental factors. In this article, we will briefly review the genetics of PsA, and then focus on the genes that may be potentially linked either directly or indirectly to the immunopathology of the Th-17 pathway. The most consistent and dominant genetic effect of PsV and PsA is located on chromosome 6p21.3 within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, which accounts for approximately one-third of the genetic contribution of PsV and PsA. To date, 36 genes have reached genome-wide significance, accounting for approximately 22% of psoriasis (PsV) heritability. Prominent genes identified via GWAS include HLA-Cw6, IL12B, IL23R, IL23A, TNIP1, TNFAIP3, LCE3B-LCE3C, TRAF3IP2, NFkBIA, FBXL19, TYK2, IFIH1, REL, and ERAP1. Genes identified in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) has largely echoed those in PsV and include HLA-B/C, HLA-B, IL-12B, IL-23R, TNIP1, TRAF3IP2, FBXL19, and REL. The lack of identified genetic susceptibility loci is largely attributed to the much smaller number of PsA patients and the greater clinical heterogeneity of PsA. Searching for different types of genetic variants such as small CNVs and/or insertions/deletions has also led to the identification of several genes with a function relative to PsV in particular including DEFB4, LCE3C_LCE3B, and IL-22 gene (exon 1). The candidate genes identified in PsV/PsA have highlighted pathways of critical importance to psoriatic disease including distinct signaling pathways comprised of barrier integrity, innate immune response and adaptive immune response, mediated primarily by Th-17 and Th-1 signalling. While GWAS studies have yielded great insights into the genes that contribute to the pathogenesis of PsV and PsA, replication in large cohorts, fine-mapping and resequencing efforts, together with functional studies of genetic variants identified, are warranted to better understand susceptibility to and progression of these diseases. That searching solely for common variants by GWAS will identify only a fraction of the entire genetic burden of disease, a concerted effort is underway to search for highly penetrant but rare disease alleles in families with PsV and PsA, using next-generation sequencing and through epigenetic investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Bailli&egrave re s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Rheumatology 10/2014; 28(5):673-685. DOI:10.1016/j.berh.2014.10.010 · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ are members of the IL-1 family of cytokines that signal through a common receptor composed of IL-36R and IL-1R/AcP to activate NF-κB and MAPKs, such as p38 and JNK, and promote inflammatory responses. IL-36Ra is a natural antagonist of the 3 IL-36 agonists that binds to IL-36R and inhibits binding of the agonistic ligands. These cytokines are expressed predominantly by epithelial cells and act on a number of cells, including immune cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. Processing of the N terminus is required for full agonist or antagonist activity for all IL-36 members. The role of IL-36 has been demonstrated extensively in the skin, where it can act on keratinocytes and immune cells to induce a robust inflammatory response and is implicated strongly through functional and genetic evidence in the pathology of psoriatic disorders. Emerging data also suggest a role for this cytokine family in pulmonary physiology and pathology. Although much has been learned about the biochemistry of IL-36 and its role in various tissues, it is clear that we are at an early stage in our understanding of the full biology of these cytokines. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The continuous discovery of new T cell subpopulations in human autoimmune diseases is making the immunopathological network more complex. Th17 cells are one such newly identified subset of T cells, characterized by the production of signature cytokine IL-17. In last few years, several studies have strongly established the regulatory role of Th17 cells and its signature cytokine IL-17 in autoimmune diseases including psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis. Psoriasis and PsA are immune mediated hyperproliferative diseases, affecting skin and joint respectively. Before the discovery of Th17 cells, psoriasis and psoriatic diseases were thought to be chiefly Th1 mediated diseases; later on IL-17 knockout animal studies as well as human experimental data indicate the crucial role of Th17 cells and its signature cytokine IL-17 in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In vitro human studies have shown the abundance of Th17 cells in the psoriatic plaques. Subsequently our research group has extended this observation in psoriatic arthritis and found the abundance of CD4+IL-17+ T cells in the synovial fluid and majority of these T cells are of memory phenotype (CD4RO+CD45RA-CD11a+). In addition, we showed the significant presence of functional IL-17 receptor in synovial fibroblast of psoriatic arthritis patients. Considering the strong association of IL-17 and psoriatic disease, IL-17 targeted therapy have shown promises in preclinical and clinical trials. In this review article, we have discussed the pathogenic role of IL-17 in psoriatic disease and summarized the therapeutic efficacy and safety profile of different anti IL-17 therapy as an anti-psoriatic agent.
    Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas 10/2014; 105S1:21-33. DOI:10.1016/S0001-7310(14)70015-8

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
57 Downloads
Available from
May 29, 2014