Role of Cross Talk in Regulating the Dynamic Expression of the Flagellar Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and Type 1 Fimbrial Genes

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
Journal of bacteriology (Impact Factor: 2.81). 11/2010; 192(21):5767-77. DOI: 10.1128/JB.00624-10
Source: PubMed


Salmonella enterica, a common food-borne pathogen, differentially regulates the expression of multiple genes during the infection cycle. These genes encode systems related to motility, adhesion, invasion, and intestinal persistence. Key among them is a type three secretion system (T3SS) encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1). In addition to the SPI1 T3SS, other systems, including flagella and type 1 fimbriae, have been implicated in Salmonella pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the dynamic expression of the flagellar, SPI1, and type 1 fimbrial genes. We demonstrate that these genes are expressed in a temporal hierarchy, beginning with the flagellar genes, followed by the SPI1 genes, and ending with the type 1 fimbrial genes. This hierarchy could mirror the roles of these three systems during the infection cycle. As multiple studies have shown that extensive regulatory cross talk exists between these three systems, we also tested how removing different regulatory links between them affects gene expression dynamics. These results indicate that cross talk is critical for regulating gene expression during transitional phases in the gene expression hierarchy. In addition, we identified a novel regulatory link between flagellar and type 1 fimbrial gene expression dynamics, where we found that the flagellar regulator, FliZ, represses type 1 fimbrial gene expression through the posttranscriptional regulation of FimZ. The significance of these results is that they provide the first systematic study of the effect of regulatory cross talk on the expression dynamics of flagellar, SPI1, and type 1 fimbrial genes.

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    • "Details of the FlrC binding sites found within the ORFs and upstream regions of sciS and rcsB are listed in Additional file 4. FlrC has been reported to function in flagellar biogenesis and intestinal colonization of V. cholerae[29]. Moreover, the flagellar system has been shown to play a significant role in regulation of T6SS in V. cholerae and have also been implicated in the regulation of SPI-1 in S. typhimurium in earlier studies [30,31]. A homology search in S. typhimurium indicated the protein YfhA to be the closest homolog of FlrC (of V. cholerae) with a sequence similarity of 62%, strengthening the possibility of YfhA’s involvement in regulation of T6SS in S. typhimurium. "
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    ABSTRACT: Three pathogenicity islands, viz. SPI-1 (Salmonella pathogenicity island 1), SPI-2 (Salmonella pathogenicity island 2) and T6SS (Type VI Secretion System), present in the genome of Salmonella typhimurium have been implicated in the virulence of the pathogen. While the regulation of SPI-1 and SPI-2 (both encoding components of the Type III Secretion System - T3SS) are well understood, T6SS regulation is comparatively less studied. Interestingly, inter-connections among the regulatory elements of these three virulence determinants have also been suggested to be essential for successful infection. However, till date, an integrated view of gene regulation involving the regulators of these three secretion systems and their cross-talk is not available. In the current study, relevant regulatory information available from literature have been integrated into a single Boolean network, which portrays the dynamics of T3SS (SPI-1 and SPI-2) and T6SS mediated virulence. Some additional regulatory interactions involving a two-component system response regulator YfhA have also been predicted and included in the Boolean network. These predictions are aimed at deciphering the effects of osmolarity on T6SS regulation, an aspect that has been suggested in earlier studies, but the mechanism of which was hitherto unknown. Simulation of the regulatory network was able to recreate in silico the experimentally observed sequential activation of SPI-1, SPI-2 and T6SS. The present study integrates relevant gene regulatory data (from literature and our prediction) into a single network, representing the cross-communication between T3SS (SPI-1 and SPI-2) and T6SS. This holistic view of regulatory interactions is expected to improve the current understanding of pathogenesis of S. typhimurium.
    Gut Pathogens 09/2013; 5(1):28. DOI:10.1186/1757-4749-5-28 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    • "Regulation of the invasion process is initiated during early-log phase of growth [19], and Salmonella becomes fully invasive during the late-log phase [20]. Cellular invasion assays were performed using isolates grown to early-log phase (OD600 = 0.15) and exposed to 0, 1, 4, and 16 μg/ml of tetracycline for 30 minutes to address the effect tetracycline had on Salmonella invasiveness (Figure 2A; Additional file 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella isolates are associated with increased morbidity compared to antibiotic-sensitive strains and are an important health and safety concern in both humans and animals. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a prevalent cause of foodborne disease, and a considerable number of S. Typhimurium isolates from humans and livestock are resistant to three or more antibiotics. The majority of these MDR S. Typhimurium isolates are resistant to tetracycline, a commonly used and clinically and agriculturally relevant antibiotic. Because exposure of drug-resistant bacteria to antibiotics can affect cellular processes associated with virulence, such as invasion, we investigated the effect tetracycline had on the invasiveness of tetracycline-resistant MDR S. Typhimurium isolates. The isolates selected and tested were from two common definitive phage types of S. Typhimurium, DT104 and DT193, and were resistant to tetracycline and at least three other antibiotics. Although Salmonella invasiveness is temporally regulated and normally occurs during late-log growth phase, tetracycline exposure induced the full invasive phenotype in a cell culture assay during early-log growth in several DT193 isolates. No changes in invasiveness due to tetracycline exposure occurred in the DT104 isolates during early-log growth or in any of the isolates during late-log growth. Real-time PCR was used to test expression of the virulence genes hilA, prgH, and invF, and these genes were significantly up-regulated during early-log growth in most isolates due to tetracycline exposure; however, increased virulence gene expression did not always correspond with increased invasion, and therefore was not an accurate indicator of elevated invasiveness. This is the first report to assess DT193 isolates, as well as the early-log growth phase, in response to tetracycline exposure, and it was the combination of both parameters that was necessary to observe the induced invasion phenotype. In this report, we demonstrate that the invasiveness of MDR S. Typhimurium can be modulated in the presence of tetracycline, and this effect is dependent on growth phase, antibiotic concentration, and strain background. Identifying the conditions necessary to establish an invasive phenotype is important to elucidate the underlying factors associated with increased virulence of MDR Salmonella.
    BMC Microbiology 09/2013; 13(1):202. DOI:10.1186/1471-2180-13-202 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    • "The regulatory pathway of type 1 fimbriae in S. Typhimurium involves several genes including the fim gene cluster and other genes such as lrp[8-14]. The Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) and flagellar systems also crosstalk with type 1 fimbriae [23]. Several studies have indicated that the mechanism controlling the intracellular c-di-GMP concentration plays a critical role in regulating fimbrial production. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium produces surface-associated fimbriae that facilitate adherence of the bacteria to a variety of cells and tissues. Type 1 fimbriae with binding specificity to mannose residues are the most commonly found fimbrial type. In vitro, static-broth culture favors the growth of S. Typhimurium with type 1 fimbriae, whereas non-type 1 fimbriate bacteria are obtained by culture on solid-agar media. Previous studies demonstrated that the phenotypic expression of type 1 fimbriae is the result of the interaction and cooperation of the regulatory genes fimZ, fimY, fimW, and fimU within the fim gene cluster. Genome sequencing revealed a novel gene, stm0551, located between fimY and fimW that encodes an 11.4-kDa putative phosphodiesterase specific for the bacterial second messenger cyclic-diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP). The role of stm0551 in the regulation of type 1 fimbriae in S. Typhimurium remains unclear. Results A stm0551-deleted stain constructed by allelic exchange constitutively produced type 1 fimbriae in both static-broth and solid-agar medium conditions. Quantative RT-PCR revealed that expression of the fimbrial major subunit gene, fimA, and one of the regulatory genes, fimZ, were comparably increased in the stm0551-deleted strain compared with those of the parental strain when grown on the solid-agar medium, a condition that normally inhibits expression of type 1 fimbriae. Following transformation with a plasmid possessing the coding sequence of stm0551, expression of fimA and fimZ decreased in the stm0551 mutant strain in both culture conditions, whereas transformation with the control vector pACYC184 relieved this repression. A purified STM0551 protein exhibited a phosphodiesterase activity in vitro while a point mutation in the putative EAL domain, substituting glutamic acid (E) with alanine (A), of STM0551 or a FimY protein abolished this activity. Conclusions The finding that the stm0551 gene plays a negative regulatory role in the regulation of type 1 fimbriae in S. Typhimurium has not been reported previously. The possibility that degradation of c-di-GMP is a key step in the regulation of type 1 fimbriae warrants further investigation.
    BMC Microbiology 06/2012; 12(1):111. DOI:10.1186/1471-2180-12-111 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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