Testing for methylated PCDH10 or WT1 is superior to the HPV test in detecting severe neoplasms (CIN3 or greater) in the triage of ASC-US smear results.
ABSTRACT Management of equivocal Papanicolaou smear result remains to be challenging even with the aid of human papillomavirus test. Recently, 3 novel methylation-silenced genes, PAX1, WT1, and PCDH10, have been found to be specifically associated with cervical cancer. We compared the performances of methylation test of these genes with human papillomavirus tests in triage of equivocal Papanicolaou smear result.
Two hundred twenty-two women with Papanicolaou smear results of atypical cells of undetermined significance nested to a multicenter, nation-wide cohort (the T1899 cohort) were studied. Status of cervical neoplasm was diagnosed with colposcopic biopsy. Status of gene methylation was determined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. High-risk human papillomavirus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction-reverse line blot hybridization and Hybrid Capture 2.
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasm 1, cervical intraepithelial neoplasm 2, cervical intraepithelial neoplasm 3, carcinoma in situ, carcinoma, and normal cervix were diagnosed in 58, 17, 14, 10, 1, and 120 women, respectively. Methylation of PCDH10, WT1, and PAX1 was highly associated with the severity of cervical neoplasm (P < 10⁻⁹, < 10⁻⁷, and < 10⁻⁵, respectively). In comparison with a negative test result, the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasm 3 or more severe neoplasms for women tested positive for methylation of these 3 genes were 26.4 (9.0-77.3), 18.1 (6.9-47.2), and 10.3 (4.1-25.9), respectively; whereas those positive for human papillomavirus polymerase chain reaction and Hybrid Capture 2 were 10.5 (3.5-31.9) and 5.6 (2.3-21.4). In triage for atypical cells of undetermined significance, each methylation test had less colposcopy referral and false-positive rates, but higher false-negative rate than the human papillomavirus tests. With a combination test of PCDH10 or WT1 methylation, a comparable false-negative rate (P = .62) but much less false-positive rate (P = .002) and colposcopy referral rate (P < 10⁻⁶) were achieved.
In triage of atypical cells of undetermined significance Papanicolaou smear results, methylation test of WT1 and PCDH10 is superior to human papillomavirus test in this multicenter cohort. Comparing to current human papillomavirus triage, the new test has only one third of false positivity and half of colposcopy referral, with no compromise of the sensitivity in diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm 3 or more severe neoplasms.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms contributing to PCDH10 down-regulation in medulloblastoma. We examined the role of PCDH10 as a mediator of medulloblastoma cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell migration. We identified a focal homozygous deletion of PCDH10 in medulloblastoma by surveying a cohort of 212 tumours by Affymetrix SNP array analysis. PCDH10 expression was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR in a series of 26 tumours. The promoter methylation status of PCDH10 was determined using methylation specific PCR and Sequenom MassCLEAVE analysis. Functional studies examining the role of PCDH10 in medulloblastoma development were performed by re-expression of PCDH10 in the DAOY medulloblastoma cell line, and then, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and cell migration assays were performed. We report a very focal homozygous deletion on chromosome 4q28.3 harbouring the PCDH10 gene. We demonstrate that PCDH10 transcription is down-regulated in 19/26 (73%) of medulloblastomas suggesting that other mechanisms also could be involved in gene repression. We found that DNA hypermethylation contributed to the deregulation of PCDH10 in 11/44 (25%) of medulloblastoma cell lines and primary tumours. Using a stable cell line (DAOY) re-expressing PCDH10, we observed that cell migration was impaired upon restoration of PCDH10 expression. Our findings suggest that genetic and epigenetic deregulation of PCDH10 occurs in a significant portion of medulloblastoma patients. Failure to express PCDH10 may result in loss of inhibition of cell migration, thereby contributing to medulloblastoma progression.Child s Nervous System 05/2011; 27(8):1243-9. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, it has been proposed that epigenetic variation may contribute to the risk of complex genetic diseases like cancer. We aimed to demonstrate that epigenetic changes in normal cells, collected years in advance of the first signs of morphological transformation, can predict the risk of such transformation. We analyzed DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of over 27,000 CpGs in cytologically normal cells of the uterine cervix from 152 women in a prospective nested case-control study. We used statistics based on differential variability to identify CpGs associated with the risk of transformation and a novel statistical algorithm called EVORA (Epigenetic Variable Outliers for Risk prediction Analysis) to make predictions. We observed many CpGs that were differentially variable between women who developed a non-invasive cervical neoplasia within 3 years of sample collection and those that remained disease-free. These CpGs exhibited heterogeneous outlier methylation profiles and overlapped strongly with CpGs undergoing age-associated DNA methylation changes in normal tissue. Using EVORA, we demonstrate that the risk of cervical neoplasia can be predicted in blind test sets (AUC = 0.66 (0.58 to 0.75)), and that assessment of DNAm variability allows more reliable identification of risk-associated CpGs than statistics based on differences in mean methylation levels. In independent data, EVORA showed high sensitivity and specificity to detect pre-invasive neoplasia and cervical cancer (AUC = 0.93 (0.86 to 1) and AUC = 1, respectively). We demonstrate that the risk of neoplastic transformation can be predicted from DNA methylation profiles in the morphologically normal cell of origin of an epithelial cancer. Having profiled only 0.1% of CpGs in the human genome, studies of wider coverage are likely to yield improved predictive and diagnostic models with the accuracy needed for clinical application. The ARTISTIC trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN25417821.Genome Medicine 03/2012; 4(3):24. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of screening programs for cervical cancer has benefited from the inclusion of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assays; which assay to choose, however, is not clear based on previous reviews. Our review addressed test accuracy of Hybrid Capture II (HCII) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on studies with stronger designs and with more clinically relevant outcomes. We searched OvidMedline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for English language studies comparing both tests, published 1985-2012, with cervical dysplasia defined by the Bethesda classification. Meta-analysis provided pooled sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs); meta-regression identified sources of heterogeneity. From 29 reports, we found that the pooled sensitivity and specificity to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was higher for HCII than PCR (0.89 [CI: 0.89-0.90] and 0.85 [CI: 0.84-0.86] vs. 0.73 [CI: 0.73-0.74] and 0.62 [CI: 0.62-0.64]). Both assays had higher accuracy to detect cervical dysplasia in Europe than in Asia-Pacific or North America (diagnostic odd ratio - dOR = 4.08 [CI: 1.39-11.91] and 4.56 [CI: 1.86-11.17] for HCII vs. 2.66 [CI: 1.16-6.53] and 3.78 [CI: 1.50-9.51] for PCR) and accuracy to detect HSIL than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)/ low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (HCII-dOR = 9.04 [CI: 4.12-19.86] and PCR-dOR = 5.60 [CI: 2.87-10.94]). For HCII, using histology as a gold standard results in higher accuracy than using cytology (dOR = 2.87 [CI: 1.31-6.29]). Based on higher test accuracy, our results support the use of HCII in cervical cancer screening programs. The role of HPV type distribution should be explored to determine the worldwide comparability of HPV test accuracy.Cancer medicine. 06/2013; 2(3):367-90.