In vivo functional near-infrared spectroscopy measures mood-modulated cerebral responses to a positive emotional stimulus in sheep
ABSTRACT The affective state of an animal, which is thought to reflect its welfare, consists of both short-term emotional reactions and long-term general mood. Because this state is generated and processed by the brain, we used non-invasive measurement of such brain activity as a novel indicator variable and investigated the interplay of mood and short-term emotional reactions in animals. We developed a wireless sensor for functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which assesses cortical perfusion changes, and consequently neuronal activity. Mood differences were induced by barren and enriched housing in a total of nine sheep and we observed their brain reaction in response to the positive situation of being groomed. We detected a decrease in cerebral oxyhaemoglobin concentration ([O(2)Hb]) which persisted during grooming. The localisation of the decrease in the brain did not depend on the site where the stimulus was applied. Also, the intensity of the response did not depend on the intensity of the grooming stimulus and a sham stimulus did not evoke an [O(2)Hb] response as seen with a grooming stimulus. Thus, we conclude that the observed haemodynamic brain response was unlikely to reflect pure somato-sensory information. We then found that the amplitude of the [O(2)Hb] response was larger if sheep were in a supposedly more negative mood. This contradicts the common assumption that negative mood generally taints reactions to emotional stimuli. Our results also demonstrate the potential of fNIRS for assessing affective states in freely moving animals.
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- "A recent example of this is given by Hesford et al.  who describe the use of a wireless NIRS device to monitor tissue oxygenation of the left and right quadriceps muscle in elite speed skaters. Other systems have been developed to provide wireless measurements of cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in various subjects, including children and sheep    . "
ABSTRACT: We have designed, built and successfully tested a prototype portable and wireless near-infrared spectroscopy system. It takes forward the well-established series of NIRO spectroscopy instruments made by Hamamatsu Photonics (Hamamatsu City, Japan). It uses an identical optical probe, and has a data acquisition rate of 10Hz. It illuminates the tissue with laser diode sources at 3 wavelengths of 775, 810 and 850nm, and detects the reflected light with 2 silicon photodiode detectors at 2 different separations, enabling spatially resolved spectroscopy to be performed. We have tested it with both in vitro and in vivo experiments to establish its basic functionality for use in studies of both brain and muscle.Medical Engineering & Physics 05/2013; 35(11). DOI:10.1016/j.medengphy.2013.04.011 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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- "We applied functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as described in Muehlemann et al. (, Fig. 1). We exposed our goats to external stimuli with presumed emotional content and thus deliberately elicited neuronal activity. "
ABSTRACT: Recent concepts relating to animal welfare accept that animals experience affective states. These are notoriously difficult to measure in non-verbal species, but it is generally agreed that emotional reactions consist of well-coordinated reactions in behaviour, autonomic and brain activation. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether each or a combination of these aspects can differentiate between situations presumed to differ in emotional content. To this end, we repeatedly confronted dwarf goats at short intervals with a covered and an uncovered feed bowl (i.e. presumably frustrating and rewarding situations respectively) whilst simultaneously observing their behaviour, measuring heart-rate and heart-rate variability and haemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. When faced with a covered feed bowl, goats occupied themselves at locations away from the bowl and showed increases locomotion, while there was a general increase in prefrontal cortical activity. There was little indication of autonomic changes. In contrast, when feed was accessible, the goats reduced locomotion, focused their behaviour on the feed bowl, showed signs of sympathetically mediated arousal reflecting anticipation and, if any cortical activity at all was present, it was concentrated to the left hemisphere. We thus observed patterns in behaviour, sympathetic reaction and brain activity that distinguished between a situation of frustration and one of reward in dwarf goats. These patterns consisted of a well-coordinated set of reactions appropriate in respect of the emotional content of the stimuli used.Behavioural brain research 11/2012; 239. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2012.10.052 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several neurorehabilitation strategies have been introduced over the last decade based on the so-called simulation hypothesis. This hypothesis states that a neural network located in primary and secondary motor areas is activated not only during overt motor execution, but also during observation or imagery of the same motor action. Based on this hypothesis, we investigated the combination of a virtual reality (VR) based neurorehabilitation system together with a wireless functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) instrument. This combination is particularly appealing from a rehabilitation perspective as it may allow minimally constrained monitoring during neurorehabilitative training. fNIRS was applied over F3 of healthy subjects during task performance in a virtual reality (VR) environment: 1) 'unilateral' group (N = 15), contralateral recording during observation, motor imagery, observation & motor imagery, and imitation of a grasping task performed by a virtual limb (first-person perspective view) using the right hand; 2) 'bilateral' group (N = 8), bilateral recording during observation and imitation of the same task using the right and left hand alternately. In the unilateral group, significant within-condition oxy-hemoglobin concentration Δ[O2Hb] changes (mean ± SD μmol/l) were found for motor imagery (0.0868 ± 0.5201 μmol/l) and imitation (0.1715 ± 0.4567 μmol/l). In addition, the bilateral group showed a significant within-condition Δ[O2Hb] change for observation (0.0924 ± 0.3369 μmol/l) as well as between-conditions with lower Δ[O2Hb] amplitudes during observation compared to imitation, especially in the ipsilateral hemisphere (p < 0.001). Further, in the bilateral group, imitation using the non-dominant (left) hand resulted in larger Δ[O2Hb] changes in both the ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres as compared to using the dominant (right) hand. This study shows that our combined VR-fNIRS based neurorehabilitation system can activate the action-observation system as described by the simulation hypothesis during performance of observation, motor imagery and imitation of hand actions elicited by a VR environment. Further, in accordance with previous studies, the findings of this study revealed that both inter-subject variability and handedness need to be taken into account when recording in untrained subjects. These findings are of relevance for demonstrating the potential of the VR-fNIRS instrument in neurofeedback applications.Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 12/2010; 7(1):57. DOI:10.1186/1743-0003-7-57 · 2.62 Impact Factor