On the formation and nature of the imidazoline I2 binding site on human monoamine oxidase-B.
ABSTRACT An allosteric binding site with high affinity for imidazoline I(2) ligands has been proposed to exist on monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B). However, enzyme inhibition only occurs at ligand concentrations far higher than are required to saturate this site. We here confirm previous reports that inactivation of recombinant human MAO-B with tranylcypromine results in the formation of a high affinity I(2) site on the enzyme, measured as an increase in binding of [(3)H]2-BFI. Incubation of MAO-B with 2-phenylethylamine, an endogenous trace amine and MAO-B substrate, resulted in a progressive loss of enzyme activity, increased enzyme mass, distinct spectral changes and, as was observed with tranylcypromine, a parallel increase in high affinity binding of [(3)H]2-BFI. Kinetic studies of the mechanism by which 2-BFI inhibits MAO-B activity suggested binding of 2-BFI, at micromolar concentrations, to a site distinct from the active site on at least two forms of the pure enzyme, probably corresponding to oxidised and reduced enzyme states. Studies with mutant enzymes revealed a pattern of changes consistent with binding of 2-BFI to the substrate entrance channel of human MAO-B. Structural data confirm that high affinity binding of I(2) ligands occurs within the entrance channel of inactive enzyme, while lower affinity binding at the same location in catalytically active enzyme results in mixed inhibition of MAO-B activity. High affinity I(2) sites may form in vivo due to inactivation of a portion of MAO-B during amine oxidation, while the low affinity I(2) site on active enzyme is a target for novel MAO-B inhibitor drugs.
Article: Crystallographic snapshots of the complete reaction cycle of nicotine degradation by an amine oxidase of the monoamine oxidase (MAO) family.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: FAD-linked oxidases constitute a class of enzymes which catalyze dehydrogenation as a fundamental biochemical reaction, followed by reoxidation of reduced flavin. Here, we present high-resolution crystal structures showing the flavoenzyme 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase in action. This enzyme was trapped during catalytic degradation of the native substrate in a sequence of discrete reaction states corresponding to the substrate-reduced enzyme, a complex of the enzyme with the intermediate enamine product and formation of the final aminoketone product. The inactive d-stereoisomer binds in mirror symmetry with respect to the catalytic axis, revealing absolute stereospecificity of hydrogen transfer to the flavin. The structural data suggest deprotonation of the substrate when bound at the active site, an overall binary complex mechanism and oxidation by direct hydride transfer. The amine nitrogen has a critical role in the dehydrogenation step and may activate carbocation formation at the α-carbon via delocalization from the lone pair to σ* C(α)-H. Enzymatically assisted hydrolysis of the intermediate product occurs at a remote (P site) cavity. Substrate entry and product exit follow different paths. Structural and kinetic data suggest that substrate can also bind to the reduced enzyme, associated with slower reoxidation as compared to the rate of reoxidation of free enzyme. The results are of general relevance for the mechanisms of flavin amine oxidases.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2011; 108(12):4800-5. · 9.68 Impact Factor