Regional cortical gray matter thickness differences associated with type 2 diabetes and major depression

Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois-Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.68). 11/2010; 184(2):63-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.07.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of type 2 diabetes with major depression on cortical gray matter using magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques. We hypothesized that diabetic subjects and depressed diabetic subjects would demonstrate decreased cortical gray matter thickness in prefrontal areas as compared to healthy control subjects. Patients with type 2 diabetes (n=26) and patients with diabetes and major depression (n=26) were compared with healthy controls (n=20). Gray matter thickness across the entire cortex was measured using cortical pattern matching methods. All subjects with diabetes demonstrated decreased cortical gray matter thickness in the left anterior cingulate region. Additionally, depressed diabetic subjects showed significant cortical gray matter decreases in bilateral prefrontal areas compared with healthy controls. Correlations between clinical variables and cortical gray matter thickness revealed a significant negative relationship with cerebrovascular risk factors across all three groups, most consistently in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. A significant positive relationship between performance on attention and executive function tasks and cortical gray matter thickness predominantly in left hemisphere regions was also seen across all subjects. Depression and diabetes are associated with significant cortical gray matter thinning in medial prefrontal areas.

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Available from: Olusola Ajilore, Sep 03, 2015
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    • "We have demonstrated that subjects with diabetes and depression have elevated frontal white matter myo-inositol and decreased subcortical glutamate/glutamine compared with healthy control subjects (Ajilore et al., 2007). Subjects with diabetes and depression also showed regional cortical thinning in the medial prefrontal cortex (Ajilore et al., 2010). In addition, we have shown that specific cognitive functions correlated with findings from structural imaging Copyright # 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between verbal learning and memory performance and hippocampal volume in subjects with co-morbid type 2 diabetes and major depression compared with healthy control subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes alone. Methods Twenty four subjects with type 2 diabetes and 20 subjects with type 2 diabetes and major depression were recruited from endocrinology clinics and were compared with 32 healthy control subjects recruited from the community. Subjects were scanned on a 1.5 T GE scanner, and hippocampal volumes were measured using Freesurfer. The California Verbal Learning Test assessed learning and memory. Significant predictors of verbal learning performance (e.g., age, gender, education, blood pressure, stroke risk, hemoglobin A1c, and hippocampal volume) were determined using a stepwise linear regression. ResultsSubjects with diabetes and depression had significantly worse performance on verbal list learning compared with healthy control subjects. Hippocampal volume was a strong predictor of performance in healthy control subjects, and age and hippocampal volume were strong predictors in subjects with type 2 diabetes alone. Age alone was a significant predictor of verbal learning performance in subjects with diabetes and depression. Conclusions The relationship between hippocampal volume and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test is decoupled in subjects with type 2 diabetes and major depression and this decoupling may contribute to poor verbal learning and memory performance in this study population. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 04/2015; 30(4). DOI:10.1002/gps.4149 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "A regional decrease in CThk was detected in the right occipital region in the HTN + T2DM group compared to the HTN group. The region of reduced CThk was smaller in spatial extent but overlapping with the CVR results, which is a novel finding relative to the literature that has primarily focused on CThk in T2DM (Ajilore et al., 2010; Brundel et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2013; Leritz et al., 2011; Seo et al., 2012) and HTN separately (Seo et al., 2012; Vuorinen et al., 2013). A previous study involving older adults demonstrated that blood glucose levels and blood pressure were both associated with CThk thinning in occipital regions, among others (Leritz et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by metabolic dysregulation in the form of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and can have a profound impact on brain structure and vasculature. The primary aim of this study was to identify brain regions where the combined effects of type 2 diabetes and hypertension on brain health exceed those of hypertension alone. A secondary objective was to test whether vascular impairment and structural brain measures in this population are associated with cognitive function. Research design and methods We enrolled 18 diabetic participants with hypertension (HTN + T2DM, 7 women, 71.8 ± 5.6 years) and 22 participants with hypertension only (HTN, 12 women, 73.4 ± 6.2 years). Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) was assessed using blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI during successive breath holds. Grey matter structure was evaluated using cortical thickness (CThk) measures estimated from T1-weighted images. Analyses of cognitive and blood data were also performed. Results Compared to HTN, HTN + T2DM had decreased CVR and CThk in a spatially overlapping region of the right occipital lobe (P < 0.025); CVR group differences were more expansive and included bilateral occipito-parietal areas (P < 0.025). Whereas CVR showed no significant associations with measures of cognitive function (P > 0.05), CThk in the right lingual gyrus ROI and regions resulting from a vertex-wise analysis (including posterior cingulate, precuneus, superior and middle frontal, middle and inferior temporal regions (P < 0.025) were associated with executive function. Conclusions Individuals with T2DM and HTN showed decreased CVR and CThk compared to age-matched HTN controls. This study identifies brain regions that are impacted by the combined effects of comorbid T2DM and HTN conditions, with new evidence that the corresponding cortical thinning may contribute to cognitive decline.
    Clinical neuroimaging 12/2014; 5. DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2014.05.020 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that obesity may be associated with both generalized and regional brain atrophy, as well as structural changes in white matter and cerebral cortex (Jagust 2007; Raji et al. 2010; Marques-Iturria et al. 2013; Hassenstab et al. 2012). Type 2 diabetes is also associated with structural brain changes, such as decreases in hippocampal volume (Kamiyama et al. 2010), total brain volume (Schmidt et al. 2004) and cortical thickness (Ajilore et al. 2010; van Velsen et al. 2013). These findings suggest the possibility of an initial neurodegenerative process during the preclinical stage of metabolic syndrome. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although previous studies have demonstrated an association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and changes in the integrity of cerebral white matter, no study has evaluated cortical thickness or subcortical volumes in MS with MRI. The purpose of our study was to investigate changes in cortical thickness and subcortical volume in an asymptomatic MS population. A total of 86 asymptomatic subjects (40 patients with MS and 46 subjects without MS) underwent 3T brain MRI scanning, and cortical thickness was compared between the groups across multiple locations. The subcortical volumes were also compared on a structure-by-structure basis. ANCOVA adjusted for age, education, total intracranial volume (TIV), and gender revealed significant volume reductions in the right nucleus accumbens in the MS group compared with the control group. The MS group showed a significant reduction in mean cortical thickness and volume in both hemispheres compared with controls. A group comparison analysis of the regional cortical thickness between the two groups also revealed significant reductions in cortical thickness in the MS group in the left insular, superior parietal, postcentral, entorhinal, and right superior parietal cortices compared with those of the control group (all comparisons p < 0.05, FDR corrected). We demonstrated a significant reduction in cortical and subcortical areas in MS patients, especially in areas involved in body weight control and cognitive function. Our results suggest an initial neurodegenerative process according to metabolic syndrome even in the preclinical stage, and further prospective studies are required to evaluate this process.
    Brain Imaging and Behavior 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11682-014-9311-2 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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