Noninvasive cerebral oximetry: is there light at the end of the tunnel?
ABSTRACT There is increasing interest in the application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a noninvasive monitor of cerebral oxygenation. This review will briefly describe the principles of NIRS and examine current evidence for its clinical application as a monitor of the adequacy of cerebral oxygenation in adults.
There has been a recent surge of interest in the clinical application of NIRS following studies that have quantified the benefits of NIRS-guided management of cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, there are limited data to support its widespread application in other clinical scenarios. New NIRS systems are being introduced to the market and technological advancements have improved their accuracy and extended the range of variables measured.
NIRS offers noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation over multiple regions of interest in a wide range of clinical scenarios. It has many potential advantages over other neuromonitoring techniques, but further technological advances are necessary before it can be introduced more widely into clinical practice.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Several near-infrared spectroscopy oximeters are commercially available for clinical use, with lack of standardization among them. Accordingly, cerebral oxygen saturation thresholds for hypoxia/ischemia identified in studies conducted with INVOSTM models do not necessarily apply to other devices. In this study, the measurements made with both INVOSTM and EQUANOXTM oximeters on the forehead of 10 patients during conventional cardiac surgery are directly compared, in order to evaluate the interchangeability of these two devices in clinical practice. Methods Cerebral oxygen saturation measurements were collected from both INVOSTM 5100C and EQUANOXTM 7600 before anesthetic induction (baseline), two minutes after tracheal intubation, at cardiopulmonary bypass onset/offset, at aortic cross-clamping/unclamping, at the end of surgery and whenever at least one of the two devices measured a reduction in cerebral oxygen saturation equal to or greater than 20% of the baseline value. Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare the bias and limits of agreement between the two devices. Results A total of 140 paired measurements were recorded. The mean bias between INVOSTM and EQUANOXTM was -5.1%, and limits of agreement were ±16.37%. Considering the values as percent of baseline, the mean bias was -1.43% and limits of agreement were ±16.47. A proportional bias was observed for both absolute values and changes from baseline. Conclusions INVOSTM and EQUANOXTM do not seem to be interchangeable in measuring both absolute values and dynamic changes of cerebral oxygen saturation during cardiac surgery. Large investigations, with appropriate design, are needed in order to identify any device-specific threshold.03/2014; 6(3):197-203.
Article: Cerebral and tissue oximetry.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been increasingly adopted in cardiac surgery to measure regional cerebral oxygen saturation. This method takes advantage of the fact that light in the near-infrared spectrum penetrates tissue, including bone and muscle. Sensors are placed at fixed distances from a light emitter, and algorithms subtract superficial light absorption from deep absorption to provide an index of tissue oxygenation. Although the popularity of NIRS monitoring is growing, definitive data that prove outcome benefits with its use remain sparse. Therefore, widespread, routine use of NIRS as a standard-of-care monitor cannot be recommended at present. Recent investigations have focused on the use of NIRS in subgroups that may benefit from NIRS monitoring, such as pediatric patients. Furthermore, a novel application of processed NIRS information for monitoring cerebral autoregulation and tissue oxygenation (e.g., kidneys and the gut) is promising. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Baillière' s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Anaesthesiology 12/2014; 28(4):429-439. DOI:10.1016/j.bpa.2014.09.002
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ABSTRACT: Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging technique for measuring changes in cerebral hemoglobin concentration via optical absorption changes. Although there is great interest in using fNIRS to study brain connectivity, current methods are unable to infer the directionality of neuronal connections. In this paper, we apply Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) to fNIRS data. Specifically, we present a generative model of how observed fNIRS data are caused by interactions among hidden neuronal states. Inversion of this generative model, using an established Bayesian framework (variational Laplace), then enables inference about changes in directed connectivity at the neuronal level. Using experimental data acquired during motor imagery and motor execution tasks, we show that directed (i.e., effective) connectivity from supplementary motor area to primary motor cortex is negatively modulated by motor imagery, and this suppressive influence causes reduced activity in primary motor cortex during motor imagery. These results are consistent with findings of previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, suggesting that the proposed method enables one to infer directed interactions in the brain mediated by neuronal dynamics from measurements of optical density changes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.NeuroImage 02/2015; 8. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.02.035 · 6.13 Impact Factor