The Incidence and Structure of the Fabella in a South African Cadaver Sample
ABSTRACT The fabella, a sesamoid bone located in the tendon of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle, was dissected from 102 lower limbs of 51 cadavers of age range 40-95 years (mean, 75.5 ± 14.5 years). The incidence of this sesamoid was determined as were its dimensions and radiological and histological features. The fabella was present in 23.5% of individuals, and it was bilaterally located in 50% of cases. It had an equal likelihood of occurring in males or females (P = 0.60), and in either right or left lower limb (P = 1.0). The consistency of the fabella was mostly bony (72.2%), a variety predominantly seen in male subjects. The mean diameters were 9.98 ± 0.9 mm and 8.78 ± 1.23 mm in males and females, respectively, with a statistically significant difference of P = 0.033. Histologically, bony fabellae had a core of spongy bone surrounded by compact bone, whereas nonbony fabellae were characterized by fibrocartilage.
- SourceAvailable from: Robert F LaPrade[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee is a critical element for a functional lower extremity. It consists of an array of complex ligamentous and musculotendinous structures. The primary function of the PLC is to resist varus and external rotation and posterior translation of the tibia. Injuries to these structures can cause significant disability and compromise activities of daily living and work, recreational, and sporting activities. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomy and biomechanics of the PLC will aid the clinician in this challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problem. The first section of this paper describes the anatomy of the PLC of the knee focusing on the intricate insertion sites of the individual structures. The second section discusses how the anatomy influences the biomechanics of the PLC.Sports medicine and arthroscopy review 04/2006; 14(1):2-11. DOI:10.1097/00132585-200603000-00002 · 1.68 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To explore the anatomic features of the fabella and its relationship with the common peroneal nerve and the fabellofibular ligament, so as to provide anatomical evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment of fabella diseases in a Chinese population. Sixty-one formalin-fixed knee specimens were obtained for anatomic dissection. Structural features of the fabella were investigated by radiological and histological tests. There were 53 cases (86.89%) with fabellae in the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle, including 34 bony ones (55.74%), whereas only 6 cases had fabellae in the medial head (9.84%). The fabellae were accompanied by common peroneal nerves on their surfaces in 11 cases (20.8%), and the presence of the fabella was not generally predictive of a fabellofibular ligament. As much as 57.9% of the cartilage fabellae were not visualized on radiograph. The structure of the ossified fabella is similar to a typical long bone. Fabellae were mainly present in the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle in a large proportion of the Chinese population. More than half of the cartilage fabellae were not visualized on radiograph. Its clinical significance could not be ignored by physicians and anatomists.Anatomia Clinica 05/2011; 34(1):65-71. DOI:10.1007/s00276-011-0828-4 · 1.05 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The fabella is a sesamoid bone located in the proximal tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. In rare cases, its presence may lead to a variety of clinical problems, including fabella syndrome and common fibular (CF) nerve palsy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the morphology of the fabella and CF nerve and discuss the influence of any existing fabellae on the size of the CF nerve. The morphology of the fabella and CF nerve in the popliteal region of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle was investigated in 102 knees of 51 Japanese cadavers. The maximum circumference of the thigh, knee, and calf and the frequency, position, and size of the fabella were measured. In addition, the CF nerve width and thickness were measured proximal to the fabellar region and again as the CF nerve passed posterior, lateral, or medial to the region. A fabella was observed in 70 knees (68.6%). The CF nerve adjacent to the fabella was significantly wider and thinner than in the region proximal to the fabella (P < 0.001). In cases in which a bony fabella was present, there was a significant relationship between the thickness of the CF nerve and the circumference of the thigh and knee. The following factors were observed to contribute to the presence of a fabella causing alterations in the size of the CF nerve: a bony fabella, a CF nerve path posterior or lateral to the fabella, and subjects with a thin physique and bony fabella. Clin. Anat., 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Clinical Anatomy 01/2012; 26(7). DOI:10.1002/ca.22153 · 1.33 Impact Factor