Demographic and familial predictors of early executive function development: contribution of a person-centered perspective.
ABSTRACT Executive function (EF) skills are integral components of young children's growing competence, but little is known about the role of early family context and experiences in their development. We examined how demographic and familial risks during infancy predicted EF competence at 36months of age in a large, predominantly low-income sample of nonurban families from Pennsylvania and North Carolina in the United States. Using latent class analysis, six ecological risk profiles best captured the diverse experiences of these families. Profiles with various combinations of family structure, income, and psychosocial risks were differentially related to EF. Much of the influence of early risks on later EF appears to be transmitted through quality of parent-child interactions during infancy. Findings suggest that early family environments may prove to be especially fruitful contexts for the promotion of EF development.
Article: Investigation of profiles of risk factors for adolescent psychopathology: a person-centered approach.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Latent variable mixture modeling was used to identify subgroups of adolescents with distinct profiles of risk factors from individual, family, peer, and broader contextual domains. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Four-class models provided the most theoretically meaningful solutions for both 7th (n = 907; 48% boys) and 11th (n = 1039; 51% boys) graders. The 4-class solution for 7th graders included low risk (LR; 66%), socioeconomic disadvantage (SD; 19%), peer high risk (PHR; 9%), and family high risk (FHR; 6%) groups. Similarly, the 4-class model for 11th graders included LR (32%), SD (43%), high risk (HR; 21%), and FHR (4%) groups. Subgroup membership predicted reported levels of depressive symptoms and conduct problems both concurrently and over time. Strengths and potential limitations of using latent variable mixture modeling to investigate risk profiles for adolescent psychopathology are discussed.Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 10/2006; 35(3):386-402. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using data from an ongoing study of 93 single Black mothers of preschoolers who had been welfare recipients, but were employed in low-wage jobs at baseline, this study tests a model of how maternal education, economic conditions (earnings and financial strain), and the availability of instrumental support influence maternal psychological functioning, parenting, and child development. Results indicate that maternal educational attainment was positively associated with earnings, which, together with instrumental support, were negatively associated with financial strain. Financial strain, in turn, was implicated in elevated levels of depressive symptoms, which were directly and negatively implicated in parenting quality. The quality of parenting was associated with children's behavior problems and preschool ability. Specifically, mothers with higher scores on the HOME scale, our measure of involved, supportive parenting, had children with fewer behavior problems and better preschool ability.Child Development 71(5):1409-23. · 4.72 Impact Factor
Article: Quality of life among children aged 2-17 years in the five Nordic countries. Comparison between 1984 and 1996.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to analyse children's quality of life (QoL) in the five Nordic countries from 1984 to 1996, a period in which major economic recessions occurred. The study design was cross-sectional based on a random sample of 3000 children in each country, aged 2 to 17 years, totalling 15,000 in 1984 and 15,000 in 1996. The data were collected by mailed questionnaires. QoL was analysed for three spheres of life: external, interpersonal, personal including both factual and perceived variables. The external sphere represented the socio-economic conditions for the child's family, the interpersonal sphere the structure and the function of the child's social networks and the personal sphere the psychological well-being of the child. The total QoL for Nordic children from 1984 to 1996 increased, but there were differences in the development of QoL between the countries. The objective QoL became better, at the same time the subjective QoL worsened, except in Denmark and Iceland. The external QoL became better, whereas the interpersonal QoL was nearly unchanged but there were differences in the development between countries. The personal QoL worsened slightly except for children in Iceland. The ranking between countries changed. Danish children had the highest subjective and Norwegian children the highest objective and external QoL. Swedish children had the highest personal QoL. Children 7-12 years had the highest QoL. Girls had a tendency to higher QoL in all ages. Nordic children still enjoy a high standard of living in spite of economic constraints, and the prerequisites for a high QoL are fulfilled. Further research is suggested for clarifying the complex background of these results.The European Journal of Public Health 01/2002; 11(4):437-45. · 2.73 Impact Factor