CD46 signaling in T cells: linking pathogens with polarity.
ABSTRACT CD46 is a cell surface protein that regulates complement activity and is utilized as a receptor by numerous viral and bacterial pathogens that infect humans. CD46 is not just an entry site for pathogens, but can affect various cellular activities in response to pathogen binding that can have profound consequences for the host response to infection. The study of CD46 signaling in T cells has emerged as an exciting area of research that is shedding new light on how pathogens might manipulate the host immune response. This review will focus on our current understanding of CD46 signaling in T cell polarity and how this might influence disease outcome.
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ABSTRACT: In common with most viruses, measles virus (MV) relies on the integrity of the cytoskeleton of its host cells both with regard to efficient replication in these cells, but also retention of their motility which favors viral dissemination. It is, however, the surface interaction of the viral glycoprotein (gp) complex with receptors present on lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), that signals effective initiation of host cell cytoskeletal dynamics. For DCs, these may act to regulate processes as diverse as viral uptake and sorting, but also the ability of these cells to successfully establish and maintain functional immune synapses (IS) with T cells. In T cells, MV signaling causes actin cytoskeletal paralysis associated with a loss of polarization, adhesion and motility, which has been linked to activation of sphingomyelinases and subsequent accumulation of membrane ceramides. MV modulation of both DC and T cell cytoskeletal dynamics may be important for the understanding of MV immunosuppression at the cellular level.Viruses 02/2011; 3(2):102-17. · 1.50 Impact Factor