Adenosine Triphosphate Release and Purinergic (P2) Receptor-Mediated Secretion in Small and Large Mouse Cholangiocytes

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.
Hepatology (Impact Factor: 11.06). 11/2010; 52(5):1819-28. DOI: 10.1002/hep.23883
Source: PubMed


Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released from cholangiocytes into bile and is a potent secretogogue by increasing intracellular Ca²(+) and stimulating fluid and electrolyte secretion via binding purinergic (P2) receptors on the apical membrane. Although morphological differences exist between small and large cholangiocytes (lining small and large bile ducts, respectively), the role of P2 signaling has not been previously evaluated along the intrahepatic biliary epithelium. The aim of these studies therefore was to characterize ATP release and P2-signaling pathways in small (MSC) and large (MLC) mouse cholangiocytes. The findings reveal that both MSCs and MLCs express P2 receptors, including P2X4 and P2Y2. Exposure to extracellular nucleotides (ATP, uridine triphosphate, or 2',3'-O-[4-benzoyl-benzoyl]-ATP) caused a rapid increase in intracellular Ca²(+) concentration and in transepithelial secretion (I(sc)) in both cell types, which was inhibited by the Cl(-) channel blockers 5-nitro-2-(-3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB) or niflumic acid. In response to mechanical stimulation (flow/shear or cell swelling secondary to hypotonic exposure), both MSCs and MLCs exhibited a significant increase in the rate of exocytosis, which was paralleled by an increase in ATP release. Mechanosensitive ATP release was two-fold greater in MSCs compared to MLCs. ATP release was significantly inhibited by disruption of vesicular trafficking by monensin in both cell types. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the existence of a P2 signaling axis along intrahepatic biliary ducts with the "upstream" MSCs releasing ATP, which can serve as a paracrine signaling molecule to "downstream" MLCs stimulating Ca²(+)-dependent secretion. Additionally, in MSCs, which do not express the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, Ca²(+)-activated Cl(-) efflux in response to extracellular nucleotides represents the first secretory pathway clearly identified in these cholangiocytes derived from the small intrahepatic ducts.

Download full-text


Available from: Gianfranco D Alpini, Apr 05, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increased flow in the distal nephron induces K secretion through the large-conductance, calcium-activated K channel (BK), which is primarily expressed in intercalated cells (IC). Since flow also increases ATP release from IC, we hypothesized that purinergic signaling has a role in shear stress (τ; 10 dynes/cm(2)) -induced, BK-dependent, K efflux. We found that 10 μM ATP led to increased IC Ca concentration, which was significantly reduced in the presence of the P(2) receptor blocker suramin or calcium-free buffer. ATP also produced BK-dependent K efflux, and IC volume decrease. Suramin inhibited τ-induced K efflux, suggesting that K efflux is at least partially dependent on purinergic signaling. BK-β4 small interfering (si) RNA, but not nontarget siRNA, decreased ATP secretion and both ATP-dependent and τ-induced K efflux. Similarly, carbenoxolone (25 μM), which blocks connexins, putative ATP pathways, blocked τ-induced K efflux and ATP secretion. Compared with BK-β4(-/-) mice, wild-type mice with high distal flows exhibited significantly more urinary ATP excretion. These data demonstrate coupled electrochemical efflux between K and ATP as part of the mechanism for τ-induced ATP release in IC.
    AJP Renal Physiology 03/2011; 300(6):F1319-26. DOI:10.1152/ajprenal.00112.2011 · 3.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ATP in bile is a potent secretogogue, stimulating biliary epithelial cell (BEC) secretion through binding apical purinergic receptors. In response to mechanosensitive stimuli, BECs release ATP into bile, although the cellular basis of ATP release is unknown. The aims of this study in human and mouse BECs were to determine whether ATP release occurs via exocytosis of ATP-enriched vesicles and to elucidate the potential role of the vesicular nucleotide transporter SLC17A9 in purinergic signaling. Dynamic, multiscale, live cell imaging (confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and a luminescence detection system with a high sensitivity charge-coupled device camera) was utilized to detect vesicular ATP release from cell populations, single cells, and the submembrane space of a single cell. In response to increases in cell volume, BECs release ATP, which was dependent on intact microtubules and vesicular trafficking pathways. ATP release occurred as stochastic point source bursts of luminescence consistent with exocytic events. Parallel studies identified ATP-enriched vesicles ranging in size from 0.4 to 1 μm that underwent fusion and release in response to increases in cell volume in a protein kinase C-dependent manner. Present in all models, SLC17A9 contributed to ATP vesicle formation and regulated ATP release. The findings are consistent with the existence of an SLC17A9-dependent ATP-enriched vesicular pool in biliary epithelium that undergoes regulated exocytosis to initiate purinergic signaling.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; 286(28):25363-76. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.232868 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To critically review most recent experimental evidence for the protective action of biliary HCO(3)(-) secretion against bile acid-induced bile duct damage and development of fibrosing cholangiopathy in humans and experimental animals. Studies in human cholangiocytes in vitro indicate that a biliary HCO(3)(-) umbrella protects against bile acid-induced cholangiocyte damage and apoptosis in humans. The Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger, AE2, and an intact biliary glycocalyx appear crucial for its stability. Related studies with experimental animal models in vivo have to be interpreted with caution as humans and mice differ not only with regard to bile salt pool, but also their expression patterns of transport proteins and signalling molecules. Adequate biliary HCO(3)(-) secretion may protect against bile salt-induced cholangiopathies. Future therapeutic strategies in biliary diseases will aim at stabilizing the biliary HCO(3)(-) umbrella.
    Current opinion in gastroenterology 03/2012; 28(3):253-7. DOI:10.1097/MOG.0b013e328352aab2 · 4.29 Impact Factor
Show more