Pyramidal Neurons Are Generated from Oligodendroglial Progenitor Cells in Adult Piriform Cortex

Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California 95817, USA.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.34). 09/2010; 30(36):12036-49. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1360-10.2010
Source: PubMed


Previous studies have shown that oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) can give rise to neurons in vitro and in perinatal cerebral cortex in vivo. We now report that OPCs in adult murine piriform cortex express low levels of doublecortin, a marker for migratory and immature neurons. Additionally, these OPCs express Sox2, a neural stem cell marker, and Pax6, a transcription factor characteristic of progenitors for cortical glutamatergic neurons. Genetic fate-mapping by means of an inducible Cre-LoxP recombination system proved that these OPCs differentiate into pyramidal glutamatergic neurons in piriform cortex. Several lines of evidence indicated that these newly formed neurons became functionally integrated into the cortical neuronal network. Our data suggest that NG2(+)/PDGFRα(+) proteolipid protein promoter-expressing progenitors generate pyramidal glutamatergic neurons within normal adult piriform cortex.

10 Reads
  • Source
    • "yama et al . , 2014 ) . The confusion is due in large part to the cell ' s multipotency . While predominantly a pool for OLs – and hence considered OPCs – NG2 - expressing cells also generate protoplasmic astrocytes and a small number of region - specific neurons ( though the latter is hotly debated ) ( Rivers et al . , 2008 ; Zhu et al . , 2008 ; Guo et al . , 2010 ; Kang et al . , 2010 ) . Recent evidence further suggests that NG2 cells are capable of receiving and reacting to neuronal input , though no defini - tive biological function has been ascribed [ reviewed by Hill and Nishiyama ( 2014 ) ] . To generate consensus and acknowledge the NG2 population as distinct , an umbrella term , polydendr"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS). While the phrase is oft repeated and holds true, the last few years have borne witness to radical change in our understanding of this unique cell type. Once considered static glue, oligodendrocytes are now seen as plastic and adaptive, capable of reacting to a changing CNS. This review is intended as a primer and guide, exploring how the past 5 years have fundamentally altered our appreciation of oligodendrocyte development and CNS myelination.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 09/2015; 9:340. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00340 · 4.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "It has been proposed that some parenchymal newborn neurons have a transient existence (Gould et al. 2001; Luzzati et al. 2011), and their fate and role remain unknown (Arvidsson et al. 2002; Chen et al. 2004; Liu et al. 2009; Ohira et al. 2010; Bonfanti and Peretto 2011; Luzzati et al. 2011). Among the unsolved issues of parenchymal neurogenesis are the numerous reports that have not been confirmed by further studies performed by the same or other laboratories (Gould et al. 1999; Magavi et al. 2000; Nakatomi et al. 2002; Zhao et al. 2003; Rivers et al. 2008; Guo et al. 2010), along with a series of findings that have been denied in studies trying to reproduce the same results (Kornack and Rakic 2001; Frielingsdorf et al. 2004; Richardson et al. 2011). Hence, it is evident that we still do not grasp the real limits and/or opportunities of parenchymal neurogenesis and that further studies are required before finally accepting or denying the existence of some " unusual " neurogenic processes. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two decades after the discovery that neural stem cells (NSCs) populate some regions of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), deep knowledge has been accumulated on their capacity to generate new neurons in the adult brain. This constitutive adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life primarily within remnants of the embryonic germinal layers known as "neurogenic sites." Nevertheless, some processes of neurogliogenesis also occur in the CNS parenchyma commonly considered as "nonneurogenic." This "noncanonical" cell genesis has been the object of many claims, some of which turned out to be not true. Indeed, it is often an "incomplete" process as to its final outcome, heterogeneous by several measures, including regional location, progenitor identity, and fate of the progeny. These aspects also strictly depend on the animal species, suggesting that persistent neurogenic processes have uniquely adapted to the brain anatomy of different mammals. Whereas some examples of noncanonical neurogenesis are strictly parenchymal, others also show stem cell niche-like features and a strong link with the ventricular cavities. This work will review results obtained in a research field that expanded from classic neurogenesis studies involving a variety of areas of the CNS outside of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ). It will be highlighted how knowledge concerning noncanonical neurogenic areas is still incomplete owing to its regional and species-specific heterogeneity, and to objective difficulties still hampering its full identification and characterization.
    Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 09/2015; 7(10). DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a018846 · 8.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "These data suggest that a pool of DCX (+) progenitors residing in the piriform cortex may be induced to differentiate in response to injury in accord with previous findings 12. It is possible that several mechanisms are responsible for the reconstitution of layer II neurons: the mobilization of a quiescent population of DCX (+) progenitors residing in the piriform cortex, lesion-induced de-novo neurogenesis in the SVZ followed by migration to the piriform cortex, and, possibly, the maturation of oligodendrocytes progenitor cells into mature neurons 26. On the basis of the data presented here and reports in the literature, we believe that activated DCX (+) progenitors mature into NeuN (+) neurons that reconstitute layer II. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Denervation of the piriform cortex by bulbotomy causes a series of important cellular changes in the inhibitory interneurons of layer I and transsynaptic apoptosis of a large number of pyramidal neurons in outer layer II within 24 h. In this study, we report that following the marked loss of neurons in outer layer II, the piriform cortex is reconstituted by the addition of newly formed neurons that restore the number to a preinjury level within 30 days. We provide evidence that the number of newly divided neuronal progenitors increases after injury and further show that a population of doublecortin-positive cells that resides in the piriform cortex decreases after injury. Taken together, these findings suggest that the piriform cortex has significant neurogenic potential that is activated following sensory denervation and may contribute toward the replacement of neurons in outer layer II.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
    Neuroreport 07/2014; 25(13). DOI:10.1097/WNR.0000000000000203 · 1.52 Impact Factor
Show more


10 Reads
Available from