Aβ Oligomers Cause Localized Ca2+ Elevation, Missorting of Endogenous Tau into Dendrites, Tau Phosphorylation, and Destruction of Microtubules and Spines
ABSTRACT Aggregation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) and Tau protein are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and according to the Abeta-cascade hypothesis, Abeta is considered toxic for neurons and Tau a downstream target of Abeta. We have investigated differentiated primary hippocampal neurons for early localized changes following exposure to Abeta oligomers. Initial events become evident by missorting of endogenous Tau into the somatodendritic compartment, in contrast to axonal sorting in normal neurons. In missorted dendritic regions there is a depletion of spines and local increase in Ca(2+), and breakdown of microtubules. Tau in these regions shows elevated phosphorylation at certain sites diagnostic of AD-Tau (e.g., epitope of antibody 12E8, whose phosphorylation causes detachment of Tau from microtubules, and AT8 epitope), and local elevation of certain kinase activities (e.g., MARK/par-1, BRSK/SADK, p70S6K, cdk5, but not GSK3beta, JNK, MAPK). These local effects occur without global changes in Tau, tubulin, or kinase levels. Somatodendritic missorting occurs not only with Tau, but also with other axonal proteins such as neurofilaments, and correlates with pronounced depletion of microtubules and mitochondria. The Abeta-induced effects on microtubule and mitochondria depletion, Tau missorting, and loss of spines are prevented by taxol, indicating that Abeta-induced microtubule destabilization and corresponding traffic defects are key factors in incipient degeneration. By contrast, the rise in Ca(2+) levels, kinase activities, and Tau phosphorylation cannot be prevented by taxol. Incipient and local changes similar to those of Abeta oligomers can be evoked by cell stressors (e.g., H(2)O(2), glutamate, serum deprivation), suggesting some common mechanism of signaling.
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ABSTRACT: Although a wide variety of genetic and nongenetic Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors have been identified, their role in onset and/or progression of neuronal degeneration remains elusive. Systematic analysis of AD risk factors revealed that perturbations of intraneuronal signalling pathways comprise a common mechanistic denominator in both familial and sporadic AD and that such alterations lead to increases in Aβ oligomers (Aβo) formation and phosphorylation of TAU. Conversely, Aβo and TAU impact intracellular signalling directly. This feature entails binding of Aβo to membrane receptors, whereas TAU functionally interacts with downstream transducers. Accordingly, we postulate a positive feedback mechanism in which AD risk factors or genes trigger perturbations of intraneuronal signalling leading to enhanced Aβo formation and TAU phosphorylation which in turn further derange signalling. Ultimately intraneuronal signalling becomes deregulated to the extent that neuronal function and survival cannot be sustained, whereas the resulting elevated levels of amyloidogenic Aβo and phosphorylated TAU species self-polymerizes into the AD plaques and tangles, respectively.BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:167024. DOI:10.1155/2014/167024 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transgenic mice expressing mutations in tau have yielded essential discoveries for Alzheimer's disease. One of the most commonly used tau mouse models is the tet-off Tg(tauP301L)4510 model that expresses P301L human tau driven by the calcium-calmodulin kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) promoter system. Tau expression in this model is regulatable, allowing for suppression of mutant tau expression until adulthood and prevention of possible developmental alterations resulting from P301L tau expression during development. Here, we compared the effect and sample sizes needed for three learning and memory tasks in mice with adult-onset P301L tau expression. Our findings indicate that the Incremental Repeated Acquisition (IRA) and trace fear conditioning tasks, neither of which have previously been published with these mice, were highly sensitive to P301L tau expression, whereas the Morris water maze, the most commonly used task with this model, was the least sensitive. Memory deficits were observed at a time when tau pathology was subtle and prior to readily detectable neuronal loss. Thus, we provide essential information (effect and sample sizes needed) for establishing experimental designs at a time point when memory deficits are likely to go undetected if inadequate sample sizes are used. Our work also suggests the tet-off Tg4510 model provides a way to avoid mutant tau expression during the perinatal and early postnatal stages, thereby preventing possible developmental alterations unrelated to Alzheimer's disease.Behavioural Brain Research 07/2014; 272. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.06.057 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by dementia, cognitive disabilities, and tauopathy. Tau is a microtubule associated protein that helps maintain the neuronal network. While phosphorylation of tau protein causes disruption of the microtubular network, dephosphorylation allows reconstitution of the microtubule network. Several kinases, e.g., MARK, MAPK, and protein kinase C, are known to hyperphosphorylate tau, leading to disruption of the microtubular network and formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which are further glycosylated, glycated, and have lipid peroxide adducts that impair the neuronal transport system and affect memory formation and retention. Moreover, intracerebral administration of amyloid-β oligomers causes hyperphosphorylation of tau, but whether it is involved in the formation of NFTs is still unclear. Further, amyloid burden activates AMP-activated protein kinase that increases phosphorylation of tau at position Ser262/Ser356 and Ser396. Several phosphatases are present at low levels in AD brains indicating that their down regulation results in abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau. However, evidence strengthens a possible link between tau phosphorylation and molecular chaperone mediated tau metabolism for the clearance of toxic tau accumulation and has a crucial role in tauopathy. Furthermore, accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein and the possibility of removing the toxic phosphorylated tau protein from the milieu indicates that the chaperone interacts with phosphorylated tau and promotes its degradation. For instance, Hsp90 and cdc37 regulate tau stability and phosphorylation dynamics whereas Hsp27 is able to modulate neuronal plasticity, while 14-3-3 is involved in the interaction of tau with small HSPs. Hsp70 ATPase acts as a modulator in AD therapeutics while Hsc70 rapidly engages tau after microtubular destabilization. Herein, we highlight the various causes of tauopathy and HSP-E3 ligase mediated therapeutics in AD.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 06/2014; DOI:10.3233/JAD-140933 · 3.61 Impact Factor