Lifestyle Counseling and Supplementation with Flaxseed or Walnuts Influence the Management of Metabolic Syndrome

Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 11/2010; 140(11):1937-42. DOI: 10.3945/jn.110.126300
Source: PubMed


A healthy lifestyle may ameliorate metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, it remains unclear if incorporating nuts or seeds into lifestyle counseling (LC) has additional benefit. A 3-arm, randomized, controlled trial was conducted among 283 participants screened for MetS using the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. Participants were assigned to a LC on the AHA guidelines, LC + flaxseed (30 g/d) (LCF), or LC + walnuts (30 g/d) (LCW) group. After the 12-wk intervention, the prevalence of MetS decreased significantly in all groups: -16.9% (LC), -20.2% (LCF), and -16.0% (LCW). The reversion rate of MetS, i.e. those no longer meeting the MetS criteria at 12 wk, was not significantly different among groups (LC group, 21.1%; LCF group, 26.6%; and LCW group, 25.5%). However, the reversion rate of central obesity was higher in the LCF (19.2%; P = 0.008) and LCW (16.0%; P = 0.04) groups than in the LC group (6.3%). Most of the metabolic variables (weight, waist circumference, serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) B, ApoE, and blood pressure) were significantly reduced from baseline in all 3 groups. However, the severity of MetS, presented as the mean count of MetS components, was significantly reduced in the LCW group compared with the LC group among participants with confirmed MetS at baseline (P = 0.045). Our results suggest that a low-intensity lifestyle education program is effective in MetS management. Flaxseed and walnut supplementation may ameliorate central obesity. Further studies with larger sample sizes and of longer duration are needed to examine the role of these foods in the prevention and management of MetS.

Download full-text


Available from: An Pan, Oct 07, 2015
24 Reads
  • Source
    • "Similarly, ingestion of 10 g/day of flaxseed oil had no effect on fasting blood serum glucose and insulin levels (Barre et al. 2008). Utilization of flaxseed for glycemic control may also be associated to the decrease in risk of obesity and dyslipidemia, since these are risk factors for the development of diabetes and resistance to insulin (Wu et al. 2010; Morisset et al. 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Flaxseed is emerging as an important functional food ingredient because of its rich contents of α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3 fatty acid), lignans, and fiber. Flaxseed oil, fibers and flax lignans have potential health benefits such as in reduction of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, autoimmune and neurological disorders. Flax protein helps in the prevention and treatment of heart disease and in supporting the immune system. As a functional food ingredient, flax or flaxseed oil has been incorporated into baked foods, juices, milk and dairy products, muffins, dry pasta products, macaroni and meat products. The present review focuses on the evidences of the potential health benefits of flaxseed through human and animals' recent studies and commercial use in various food products.
    Journal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore- 09/2014; 51(9):1633-53. DOI:10.1007/s13197-013-1247-9 · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nutrition-related health issues have emerged as a major threat to public health since the rebirth of the economy in China starting in the 1980s. To meet this challenge, the Chinese Academy of Sciences established the Institute for Nutritional Sciences (INS) at Shanghai, China ≈ 8 y ago. The mission of the INS is to apply modern technologies and concepts in nutritional research to understand the molecular mechanism and provide means of intervention in the combat against nutrition-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and many types of cancers. Through diligent and orchestrated efforts by INS scientists, graduate students, and research staff in the past few years, the INS has become the leading institution in China in the areas of basic nutritional research and metabolic regulation. Scientists at the INS have made important progress in many areas, including the characterization of genetic and nutritional properties of the Chinese population, metabolic control associated with nutrient sensing, molecular mechanisms underlying glucose and lipid metabolism, regulation of metabolism by adipokines and inflammatory pathways, disease intervention using functional foods or extracts of Chinese herbs, and many biological studies related to carcinogenesis. The INS will continue its efforts in understanding the optimal nutritional needs for Chinese people and the molecular causes associated with metabolic diseases, thus paving the way for effective and individualized intervention in the future. This review highlights the major research endeavors undertaken by INS scientists in recent years.
    Advances in Nutrition 09/2011; 2(5):428-39. DOI:10.3945/an.111.000703 · 4.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an abdominal obesity management program on dietary intake, stress index, and waist to hip ratio (WHR) in abdominally obese women. The subjects were 195 adult abdominally obese women (WHR ≥ 0.80) who had been participating in a nutrition education (total of nine times) and dietary habits and life style modification programs (total of six times) for 12 weeks. The abdominal obesity management program focused on the nutrition provided by breakfast, lunch, and dinner, proper dietary habits, and practices to improve life style. The subjects were divided into a WHR decrease group and a WHR increase group according to changes in the WHR. Daily nutrient intake was assessed with a 3-day food record, body measurements and blood vessel age, stress index, and a health index that were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. After the intervention, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, and body mass index (BMI) decreased significantly in the WHR decrease group. Energy intake increased from 1486.2 kcal to 1541.4 kcal with a significant improvement in nutrient density for animal protein, total fat, animal fat, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamin B6, vitamin C, vitamin E, and saturated fatty acids in the WHR decrease group. Additionally, dietary diversity increased significantly in the WHR decrease group compared to that in the WHR increase group. The WHR decrease group showed a significant improvement in the stress and health indices. Changes in WHR were correlated with changes in nutrient intake (animal protein, total fat, animal fat, plant fat, fiber, calcium, iron, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C, and folate) and medical index profiles (stress and indices) adjusted for age, birth status, baseline BMI, and baseline WHR. These results show that an abdominal obesity management program was effective not only for reducing the WHR but also to improve dietary intake and the stress index in abdominally obese women.
    The Korean Journal of Nutrition 01/2012; 45(2):127. DOI:10.4163/kjn.2012.45.2.127
Show more