Comparison of oncological outcomes of transperitoneal and retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for the management of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma: a multi-institutional study.

Department of Urology, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
BJU International (Impact Factor: 3.13). 05/2011; 107(9):1467-72. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09636.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT • To investigate the oncological efficacy of retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (RLRN) compared with transperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (TLRN) for the management of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
• With emphasis on survival and disease recurrence, a retrospective analysis was made of 580 patients who underwent TLRN (472 patients) or RLRN (108 patients) at 23 institutions between January 1997 and December 2007. • Inclusion criteria were clear-cell RCC, stage pT1 to pT2 without any nodal involvement, and metastasis. • Overall survival and recurrence-free survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. • To assess the association between the surgical approach and survival outcomes, Cox proportional hazard models were constructed.
• The median follow-up was 30 months in the TLRN group and 35.6 months in the RLRN group. Both groups were comparable regarding age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Fuhrman's grade, size of tumours and stage. • Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test showed no significant difference between the TLRN and RLRN groups in 5-year overall (92.6% vs 94.5%; P = 0.669) and recurrence-free survival (92.0% vs 96.2%; P = 0.244). • In a Cox regression model with age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, BMI, nuclear grade and T-stage adjusted variables, no significant difference was found between the two surgical approaches.
• The present study is the largest oncological analysis for laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) comparing transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches. The data from it provide the objective evidence to suggest similar oncological outcomes for both approaches to LRN.

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    ABSTRACT: What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Laparoscopic nephrectomy is now considered to be the reference procedure for kidney cancer. It can be performed via a transperitoneal or retroperitoneal approach. Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. No definitive conclusions regarding objective difference between the two approaches have been reached to date. This meta-analysis indicates that in appropriately selected patients, especially patients with posteriorly located renal tumors, the retroperitoneal approach may be faster and equally safe compared with the transperitoneal approach. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of the retroperitoneal and transperitoneal approaches in laparoscopic radical/partial nephrectomy (RN/PN) for renal cell carcinoma. METHODS: A systematic search of PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify prospective randomized controlled trials and retrospective observational studies that compared the outcomes of the two approaches. Outcomes of interest included perioperative and postoperative variables, surgical complications and oncological variables. RESULTS: Twelve studies assessing transperitoneal laparoscopic RN (TLRN) vs retroperitoneal laparoscopic RN (RLRN) and six studies assessing transperitoneal laparoscopic PN (TLPN) vs retroperitoneal laparoscopic PN (RLPN) were included. The RLRN approach had a shorter time to renal artery control (weighted mean difference [WMD] 68.65 min; 95% confidence interval [CI] 40.80-96.50; P < 0.001) and a lower overall complication rate (odds ratio 2.12; 95% CI 1.30-3.47; P = 0.003) than TLRN. RLPN had a shorter operating time (WMD 48.85 min; 95% CI 29.33-68.37; P < 0.001) and a shorter length of hospital stay (WMD 1.01 days; 95% CI 0.39-1.63; P = 0.001) than TLPN. There were no significant differences between the retroperitoneal and transperitoneal approaches in other outcomes of interest. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicates that, in appropriately selected patients, especially patients with posteriorly located renal tumours, the retroperitoneal approach may be faster and equally safe compared with the transperitoneal approach. Despite our rigorous methodology, conclusions drawn from our pooled results should be interpreted with caution because of the inherent limitations of the included studies.
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