Article

Regulation of inflammation by the NF-κB pathway in ovarian cancer stem cells.

Department of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology (Impact Factor: 3.32). 04/2011; 65(4):438-47. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2010.00914.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The NFκB pathway is a major source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may contribute to cancer chemoresistance. We showed that constitutive NFκB activity is characteristic of the ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs). The aim of this study is to determine whether the inhibition of NFκB by Eriocalyxin B (EriB) in the OCSCs may induce cell death in otherwise chemoresistant cells.
OCSCs and mature ovarian cancer cells (mOCCs) were treated with increasing concentrations of EriB. Cell viability was measured using the Celltiter 96 assay, and caspase activity was quantified using Caspase-Glo™ assay. Cytokine levels were quantified using xMAP technology.
EriB decreased the percent of viable cells in all cultures tested with GI(50) of 0.5-1 μm after 48 hrs of treatment. The intracellular changes associated with EriB-induced cell death are: (i) inhibition of NF-κB activity; (ii) decreased cytokine production; (iii) activation of caspases; and (iv) down-regulation of XIAP. In addition, EriB is able to sensitize OCSCs to TNFα and FasL-mediated cell death.
Inhibition of the NFκB pathway induces cell death in the OCSCs. Because the OCSCs may represent the source of recurrence and chemoresistance, the use of NFκB inhibitors like EriB may prevent recurrence in patients with ovarian cancer.

0 Followers
 · 
137 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The increased expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic chemokines contributes to ovarian cancer progression through the induction of tumor cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The substantial potential of these chemokines to facilitate the progression and metastasis of ovarian cancer underscores the need for their stringent transcriptional regulation. In this Review, we highlight the key mechanisms that regulate the transcription of pro-inflammatory chemokines in ovarian cancer cells, and that have important roles in controlling ovarian cancer progression. We further discuss the potential mechanisms underlying the increased chemokine expression in drug resistance, along with our perspective for future studies.
    03/2015; 5(1):223-243. DOI:10.3390/biom5010223
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As an ent-kaurene diterpenoid isolated from Isodon eriocalyx var. Laxiflora, Eriocalyxin B (EriB) possesses potent bioactivity of antitumor and anti-autoimmune inflammation, which has been suggested to work through inhibition of NF-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling. However, the direct target of EriB remains elusive. In this study, we showed that EriB induced apoptosis is associated with the inhibition of NF-κB signaling in SMMC-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. With activity-based probe profiling, we identified p50 protein as the direct target of EriB. We showed that cysteine 62 is the critical residue of p50 for EriB binding through the α, β-unsaturated ketones. As the result, EriB selectively blocks the binding between p50 and the response elements, whereas having no effect on the dimerization or the nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. SiRNA mediated knockdown of p50 attenuated the apoptosis induced by EriB in SMMC-7721 cells. Taken together, our studies illustrated that EriB induces cancer cell apoptosis through interfering with the binding between NF-κB and the response elements by targeting the cysteine 62 of p50, which highlights its potential for the development of p50 targeted cancer therapeutic agents.
    Oncotarget 10/2014; 5(22). · 6.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), a serine/threonine kinase that orchestrates cytoskeletal remodeling and cell motility, has been shown to function as downstream node for various oncogenic signaling pathways to promote cell proliferation, regulate apoptosis and accelerate mitotic abnormalities, resulting in tumor formation and invasiveness. Although alterations in PAK1 expression and activity have been detected in various human malignancies, its potential biological and clinical significance in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains obscure. In this study, we found increased PAK1 and phosphorylated PAK1 levels in tumor tissues according to TNM stage progression. Elevated phosphorylated PAK1 levels associated with progressive features and indicated unfavorable overall survival (OS) as an independent adverse prognosticator for patients with RCC. Moreover, PAK1 kinase activation with constitutive active PAK1 mutant T423E promoted growth, colony formation, migration, invasion and stem-like phenotype of RCC cells, and vice versa, in PAK1 inhibition by PAK1 kinase inactivation with specific PAK1 shRNA, dead kinase PAK1 mutant K299R or allosteric inhibitor IPA3. Stem-like phenotype due to sunitinib administration via increased PAK1 kinase activation could be ameliorated by PAK1 shRNA, PAK1 mutant K299R and IPA3. Furthermore, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/interleukin-6 (IL-6) activation was found to be responsible for PAK1-mediated stem-like phenotype following sunitinib treatment. Both IL-6 neutralizing antibody and IPA3 administration enhanced tumor growth inhibition effect of sunitinib treatment on RCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results unraveled that oncogenic activation of PAK1 defines an important mechanism for maintaining stem-like phenotype and sunitinib resistance through NF-κB/IL-6 activation in RCC, lending PAK1-mediated NF-κB/IL-6 activation considerable appeal as novel pharmacological therapeutic targets against sunitinib resistance.
    Cell Death & Disease 02/2015; 6(2):e1637. DOI:10.1038/cddis.2015.2 · 5.18 Impact Factor