Regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 1 in skeletal muscle cells by intracellular signaling pathways.
ABSTRACT Skeletal muscle is the major producer of lactic acid in the body, but its oxidative fibers also use lactic acid as a respiratory fuel. Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 has been suggested to play a major role in influx of L-lactic acid for oxidation. The regulation mechanism of MCT1 was characterized utilizing rhabdomyosarcoma cells as an in vitro skeletal muscle model. The uptake of L-lactic acid via MCT1 was studied in the presence of various intracellular regulatory pathways, including pathways mediated by protein kinases A, C and G (PKA, PKC and PKG), protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), and Ca2+/calmodulin modulators. The results showed that PKG-, PTK-, and Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated regulatory pathways play no role in the regulation of L-lactic acid uptake, but a role for PKC- and PKA-mediated pathways was apparent. Uptake of L-lactic acid appeared to be stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a PKC activator) via an increase in Vmax of transport processes with no alteration in Km. In parallel, PMA treatment also resulted in an increase in the level of MCT1 expression. On the other hand, exposure to 8-Br-cAMP, a cAMP analog, and to forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, resulted in a significant decrease in L-lactic acid uptake. Additionally, 8-Br-cAMP reduced Vmax but not Km values. Parallel to the decrease in Vmax of L-lactic acid uptake, the level of MCT1 expression was decreased in response to incubation with 8-Br-cAMP. These results indicate the possible involvement of a PKC- and PKA-mediated pathway associated with expression of MCT1 and lactate transport.
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that bile acids may play a role in CRC etiology. Our aim was to characterize the effect of the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) upon(14) C-BT uptake in tumoral (Caco-2) and non-tumoral (IEC-6) intestinal epithelial cell lines. A 2-day exposure to CDCA markedly and concentration-dependently inhibited (14) C-BT uptake by IEC-6 cells (IC(50) = 120 µM), and, less potently, by Caco-2 cells (IC(50) = 402 µM). The inhibitory effect of CDCA upon (14) C-BT uptake did not result from a decrease in cell proliferation or viability. In IEC-6 cells: (1) uptake of (14) C-BT involves both a high-affinity and a low-affinity transporter, and CDCA acted as a competitive inhibitor of the high-affinity transporter; (2) CDCA inhibited both Na(+)-coupled monocarboxylate cotransporter 1 (SMCT1)- and H(+)-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1)-mediated uptake of (14) C-BT; (3) CDCA significantly increased the mRNA expression level of SMCT1; (4) inhibition of (14) C-BT uptake by CDCA was dependent on CaM, MAP kinase (ERK1/2 and p38 pathways), and PKC activation, and reduced by a reactive oxygen species scavenger. Finally, BT (5 mM) decreased IEC-6 cell viability and increased IEC-6 cell differentiation, and CDCA (100 µM) reduced this effect. In conclusion, CDCA is an effective inhibitor of (14) C-BT uptake in tumoral and non-tumoral intestinal epithelial cells, through inhibition of both H(+) -coupled MCT1- and SMCT1-mediated transport. Given the role played by BT in the intestine, this mechanism may contribute to the procarcinogenic effect of CDCA at this level.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 05/2012; 113(9):2937-47. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The onset of skeletal muscle regeneration is characterized by proliferating myoblasts. Proliferating myoblasts have an increased energy demand and lactate exchange across the sarcolemma can be used to address this increased demand. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are involved in lactate transport across the sarcolemma and are known to be affected by various physiological stimuli. However, MCT expression at the onset of skeletal muscle regeneration has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle regeneration altered MCT expression in regenerating tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Male C57/BL6 mice were randomly assigned to either a control (uninjured) or bupivacaine (injured) group. Three days post injection, the TA was extracted for determination of protein and gene expression. A 21% decrease in muscle mass to tibia length (2.4 ± 0.1 mg/mm vs. 1.9 ± 0.2 mg/mm, P < 0.02) was observed. IGF-1 and MyoD gene expression increased 5.0-fold (P < 0.05) and 3.5-fold (P < 0.05), respectively, 3 days post bupivacaine injection. MCT-1 protein was decreased 32% (P < 0.03); however, MCT-1 gene expression was not altered. There was no difference in MCT4 protein or gene expression. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A protein expression increased 71% (P < 0.0004). Protein levels of LDH-B and mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome C oxidase subunit decreased 3 days post bupivacaine injection. CD147 and PKC-θ protein increased 64% (P < 0.03) and 79% (P < 0.02), respectively. MCT1 but not MCT4 expression is altered at the onset of skeletal muscle regeneration possibly in an attempt to regulate lactate uptake and use by skeletal muscle cells.Physiological reports. 09/2013; 1(4):e00075.